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剑桥雅思11Test2Passage1阅读原文翻译 Raising the Mary Rose 玛丽玫瑰号 剑 […]


剑桥雅思11Test2Passage1阅读原文翻译 Raising the Mary Rose 玛丽玫瑰号



雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思11 test 2 passage 1 打捞玛丽玫瑰号rising the Mary Rose

剑桥雅思11Test2Passage1阅读答案解析 Raising the Mary Rose 玛丽玫瑰号

剑桥雅思11 Test2 Passage1阅读原文翻译


On 19 July 1545, English and French fleets were engaged in a sea battle off the coast of southern England in the area of water called the Solent, between Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight. Among the English vessels was a warship by the name of Mary Rose. Built in Portsmouth some 35 years earlier, she had had a long and successful fighting career, and was a favourite of King Henry VIII. Accounts of what happened to the ship vary: while witnesses agree that she was not hit by the French, some maintain that she was outdated, overladen and sailing too low in the water, others that she was mishandled by undisciplined crew. What is undisputed, however, is that the Mary Rose sank into the Solent that day, taking at least 500 men with her. After the battle, attempts were made to recover the ship, but these failed.



The Mary Rose came to rest on the seabed, lying on her starboard (right) side at an angle of approximately 60 degrees. The hull (the body of the ship) acted as a trap for the sand and mud carried by Solent currents. As a result, the starboard side filled rapidly, leaving the exposed port (left) side to be eroded by marine organisms and mechanical degradation. Because of the way the ship sank, nearly all of the starboard half survived intact. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the entire site became covered with a layer of hard grey clay, which minimised further erosion.



Then, on 16 June 1836, some fishermen in the Solent found that their equipment was caught on an underwater obstruction, which turned out to be the Mary Rose. Diver John Deane happened to be exploring another sunken ship nearby, and the fishermen approached him, asking him to free their gear. Deane dived down, and found the equipment caught on a timber protruding slightly from the seabedExploring further, he uncovered several other timbers and a bronze gun. Deane continued diving on the site intermittently until 1840, recovering several more guns, two bows, various timbers, part of a pump and various other small finds.

随后,1836年6月16日,索伦特海域的一些渔民发现他们的设备被某种水下障碍物卡住。而该障碍物正是玛丽玫瑰号。潜水员John Deane恰好在附近探索另外一艘沉船。渔民找到他,请他帮助解开他们的设备。Deane潜入水中,发现设备被挂在微微伸出海床的木杆上。进一步探查之后,他发现了一些其他木料,以及一把铜火枪。Deane断断续续地潜入该地点直到1840年。他发现了更多的火枪、两把弓、各种木材、水泵部件,以及其他各种各样的小东西。


The Mary Rose then faded into obscurity for another hundred years. But in 1965, military historian and amateur diver Alexander McKee, in conjunction with the British Sub-Aqua Club, initiated a project called ‘Solent Ships’. While on paper this was a plan to examine a number of known wrecks in the Solent, what McKee really hoped for was to find the Mary Rose. Ordinary search techniques proved unsatisfactory, so McKee entered into collaboration with Harold E. Edgerton, professor of electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1967, Edgerton’s side-scan sonar systems revealed a large, unusually shaped object, which McKee believed was the Mary Rose.

玛丽玫瑰号随后又销声匿迹了100多年。1965年,军事历史学家、业余潜水员Axexander Mckee与英国潜水俱乐部合作,发起了一项被称为“索伦特沉船”的项目。纸面上,该计划是要研究一些索伦特海域已知的沉船,但Mckee真正希望的是找到玛丽玫瑰号。常规的搜索技术被证明差强人意,所以Mckee开始与麻省理工学院的电子工程学教授Harold E. Edgerton合作。1967年,Edgerton的侧向扫描声纳系统发现了一个巨大的、形状与众不同的物体。Mckee相信这正是玛丽玫瑰号。


Further excavations revealed stray pieces of timber and an iron gun. But the climax to the operation came when, on 5 May 1971, part of the ship’s frame was uncovered. McKee and his team now knew for certain that they had found the wreck, but were as yet unaware that it also housed a treasure trove of beautifully preserved artefacts. Interest in the project grew, and in 1979, The Mary Rose Trust was formed, with Prince Charles as its President and Dr Margaret Rule its Archaeological Director. The decision whether or not to salvage the wreck was not an easy one, although an excavation in 1978 had shown that it might be possible to raise the hullWhile the original aim was to raise the hull if at all feasible, the operation was not given the go-ahead until January 1982, when all the necessary information was available.

进一步的发掘找到了一些散落的木头片和一支铁制火枪。但整个行动的高潮发生在1971年5月5日。当时找到了部分船只框架。Mckee和他的团队现在明确知道他们发现了沉船,但还没有意识到里面储藏着保存完好的精美艺术品宝藏。人们对该项目的兴趣日益高涨。1979年玛丽玫瑰号信托基金成立,查尔斯王子担任主席,Margaret Rule担任考古负责人。尽管1978年的发掘显示有可能打捞起整个船体,但是否打捞船只的决定却并不容易做出。虽然最初的目的是只要有可能就将船体打捞上来,但该行动直到1982年1月所有信息完备之后才得到批准。


An important factor in trying to salvage the Mary Rose was that the remaining hull was an open shell. This led to an important decision being taken: namely to carry out the lifting operation in three very distinct stages. The hull was attached to a lifting frame via a network of bolts and lifting wires. The problem of the hull being sucked back downwards into the mud was overcome by using 12 hydraulic jacks. These raised it a few centimetres over a period of several days, as the lifting frame rose slowly up its four legs. It was only when the hull was hanging freely from the lifting frame, clear of the seabed and the suction effect of the surrounding mud, that the salvage operation progressed to the second stage. In this stage, the lifting frame was fixed to a hook attached to a crane, and the hull was lifted completely clear of the seabed and transferred underwater into the lifting cradle. This required precise positioning to locate the legs into the ‘stabbing guides’ of the lifting cradle. The lifting cradle was designed to fit the hull using archaeological survey drawings, and was fitted with air bags to provide additional cushioning for the hull‘s delicate timber framework. The third and final stage was to lift the entire structure into the air, by which time the hull was also supported from below. Finally, on 11 October 1982, millions of people around the world held their breath as the timber skeleton of the Mary Rose was lifted clear of the water, ready to be returned home to Portsmouth.


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