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剑桥雅思11Test4Passage2阅读原文翻译 An Introduction to Film Sound […]

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剑桥雅思11Test4Passage2阅读原文翻译 An Introduction to Film Sound 电影声音介绍

剑桥雅思11阅读第四套题目第二篇文章的主题为电影的声音。文章一共9段,分别介绍了电影声音的作用和分类,对话在电影中的作用,对话使用方法的不同,同步音效和不同步音效的功能,背景音乐的效用等。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及对应的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思11 test 4 passage 2 电影声音film sound

剑桥雅思11Test4Passage2阅读答案解析 An Introduction to Film Sound 电影声音介绍

剑桥雅思11 Test4 Passage2阅读原文翻译

第1段

Though we might think of film as an essentially visual experience, we really cannot afford to underestimate the importance of film sound. A meaningful sound track is often as complicated as the image on the screen, and is ultimately just as much the responsibility of the director. The entire sound track consists of three essential ingredients: the human voice, sound effects and music. These three tracks must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the necessary emphases which in turn create desired effects. Topics which essentially refer to the three previously mentioned tracks are discussed below. They include dialogue, synchronous and asynchronous sound effects, and music.

虽然我们可能认为电影在本质上是一种视觉体验,但我们确实不能低估电影声音的重要性。一段含义丰富的音轨往往与屏幕上的画面同样复杂,并且导演最终要为此承当同样多的责任。完整的音轨包含三个基本元素:人声,音效和音乐。这三条音轨必须混合在一起,而且互相平衡,才能产生必要的侧重点,进而创造出想要的效果。针对以上提到的三种音轨所展开的话题将在后文中进行讨论。它们包括对话,同步和不同步的音效,以及音乐。

第2段

Let us start with dialogue. As is the case with stage drama, dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well. Often with film characterization the audience perceives little or no difference between the character and the actor. Thus, for example, the actor Humphrey Bogart is the character Sam Spade; film personality and life personality seem to merge. Perhaps this is because the very texture of a performer‘s voice supplies an element of character.

让我们从对话开始。与舞台剧相同,对话起着讲述故事,表达角色情感与动机的作用。随着电影的人物刻画,观众文章来自老烤鸭雅思往往分别不出角色和演员之间的差别。因此,举例而言,演员Humphrey Bogart就是Sam Spade。电影中的人格似乎与生活中的人格融为一体。或许这是因为表演者的声音特质构成了角色的一项基本元素。

第3段

When voice textures fit the performer‘s physiognomy and gestures, a whole and very realistic persona emerges. The viewer sees not an actor working at his craft, but another human being struggling with life. It is interesting to note that how dialogue is used and the very amount of dialogue used varies widely among films. For example, in the highly successful science-fiction film 2001, little dialogue was evident, and most of it was banal and of little intrinsic interest. In this way the film-maker was able to portray what Thomas Sobochack and Vivian Sobochack call, in An Introduction to Film, the ‘inadequacy of human responses when compared with the magnificent technology created by man and the visual beauties of the universe’.

当声音特点符合演员的容貌和姿态,一个完整而真实的人物就出现了。观众看到的不是一名演员在展现自己的技艺,而是另一个人在生活中挣扎。有意思的是,不同电影之间,对话的使用和对话的数量差别很大。例如,在《2001》这部非常成功的科幻电影中,很少有明显的对话。这些对话的大部分也都是平淡无味,没有什么内在含义。这样一来,电影制作者的以描绘出Thomas Sobochack和Vivian Sobochack在《电影简介》中所说到的那种效果:“相比于人类创造出的宏大技术与宇宙的视觉美感,人们的反应是那么微不足道”。

第4段

The comedy Bringing Up Baby, on the other hand, presents practically non-stop dialogue delivered at breakneck speed. This use of dialogue underscores not only the dizzy quality of the character played by Katherine Hepburn, but also the absurdity of the film itself and thus its humor. The audience is bounced from gag to gag and conversation to conversation; there is no time for audience reflection. The audience is caught up in a whirlwind of activity in simply managing to follow the plot. This film presents pure escapism – largely due to its frenetic dialogue.

另一方面,《育婴奇谭》这部喜剧片呈现出几乎不停歇的、语速飞快的对话。对话的使用不仅强调了Katherine Hepburn所扮演的角色的愚蠢特点,而且还突出了电影本身的荒诞以及由此而来的幽默。观众从一个噱头被抛向另一个噱头,从一场对话被拉入另一场对话。没有时间给观众去思考。观众置身于一场各种行为快速切换的旋风之中,只能努力跟上剧情发展。这部电影呈现出纯粹的逃避现实的风格-这在很大程度上是由于其狂乱的对话。

第5段

Synchronous sound effects are those sounds which are synchronized or matched with what is viewed. For example, if the film portrays a character playing the piano, the sounds of the piano are projected. Synchronous sounds contribute to the realism of film and also help to create a particular atmosphere. For example, the “click” of a door being opened may simply serve to convince the audience that the image portrayed is real, and the audience may only subconsciously note the expected sound. However, if the ‘click’ of an opening door is part of an ominous action such as a burglary, the sound mixer may call attention to the ‘click’ with an increase in volume; this helps to engage the audience in a moment of suspense.

同步音效是那些与观众看到的内容同步或者相匹配的声音。例如,如果电影中的人物正在弹钢琴,那么钢琴的声音就会被投放出来。同步音效增加了电影的真实感,并且帮助创造出一种特定的氛围。例如,门被打开的咔哒声可能只是为了说服观众,其所刻画的画面是真实的。而观众也可能只是在潜意识里注意到这个意料之内的声音。然而,如果开门的咔哒声是即将到来的不幸事件的一部分(例如入室盗窃),混音师可能会提升音量来吸引注意力。这会帮助观众融入紧张的气氛中。

第6段

Asynchronous sound effects, on the other hand, are not matched with a visible source of the sound on screen. Such sounds are included so as to provide an appropriate emotional nuance, and they may also add to the realism of the film. For example, a film-maker might opt to include the background sound of an ambulance‘s siren while the foreground sound and image portrays an arguing couple. The asynchronous ambulance siren underscores the psychic injury incurred in the argument; at the same time the noise of the siren adds to the realism of the film by acknowledging the film’s city setting.

另一方面,不同步音效并不与屏幕上可见的声音来源相匹配。这些声音被包含进来,以便提供某种恰当的情绪氛围。它们或许也可以增进电影的真实性。例如,当前台声音和画面刻画出一对争吵的夫妻时,电影制作者可能选择在背景音乐中加入救护车的鸣笛声。不同步的救护车鸣笛声突出了争吵所带来的精神伤害。同时,汽笛的噪音通过提示电影的城市背景设定增加了电影的真实感。

第7段

We are probably all familiar with background music in films, which has become so ubiquitous as to be noticeable in its absence. We are aware that it is used to add emotion and rhythmUsually not meant to be noticeable, it often provides a tone or an emotional attitude toward the story and/or the characters depicted. In addition, background music often foreshadows a change in mood. For example, dissonant music may be used in film to indicate an approaching (but not yet visible) menace or disaster.

我们可能对电影中的背景音乐十分熟悉。它变得如此普遍,以至于缺失的时候反而会引起人们的注意。我们知道它被用来渲染情绪和韵律。通常来说它并不想要引人注意,而是为影片中所刻画的故事和/或人物提供某种基调或情绪态度。此外,背景音乐往往预示着情绪上的改变。例如,电影中可能使用不协调的音乐来暗示即将到来(但还不可见)的危害或灾难。

第8段

Background music may aid viewer understanding by linking scenes. For example, a particular musical theme associated with an individual character or situation may be repeated at various points in a film in order to remind the audience of salient motifs or ideas.

背景音乐可以通过联系场景来帮助观众理解。例如,与某一人物或场景相联系的特定的音乐主题可能会在电影的不同地方重复出现,以提醒观众其核心主旨或主题思想。

第9段

Film sound comprises conventions and innovations. We have come to expect an acceleration of music during car chases and creaky doors in horror films. Yet, it is important to note as well that sound is often brilliantly conceived. The effects of sound are often largely subtle and often are noted by only our subconscious minds. We need to foster an awareness of film sound as well as film space so as to truly appreciate an art form that sprang to life during the twentieth century – the modern film.

电影声音同时包含了传统与创新。我们在汽车追逐时会期待音乐加速,在恐怖电影中会期待咯吱作响的门。然而,注意到这一点也十分重要:声音通常是以一种高明的方式被人们所感知。声音的作用在很大程度上都是微妙的,往往只会被我们的潜意识所注意。我们需要培养对电影声音和电影空间的意识,从而真正欣赏这一在20世纪出现的鲜活的艺术形式-现代电影。

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