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剑桥雅思12Test6Passage1雅思阅读原文翻译 The risks agriculture faces […]

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剑桥雅思12Test6Passage1雅思阅读原文翻译 The risks agriculture faces in developing countries 发展中国家农业面临的风险

剑桥雅思12阅读第6套题目第1篇文章的主题为发展中国家农业所面临的风险。文章一共9段,大体可以分为3部分,分别介绍了具体的风险类型,可以采取的措施,以及这些措施存在的缺陷。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思12 test 6 passage 1 发展中国家农业风险the risks agriculture faces in developing countries

剑桥雅思12Test6Passage1阅读答案解析 The risks agriculture faces in developing countries 发展中国家农业所面临的风险

剑桥雅思12 Test6 Passage1阅读原文翻译

段落A

Two things distinguish food production from all other productive activities: first, every single person needs food each day and has a right to it; and second, it is hugely dependent on nature. These two unique aspects, one political, the other natural, make food production highly vulnerable and different from any other business. At the same time, cultural values are highly entrenched in food and agricultural systems worldwide.

两件事情将食物生产与其他所有类型的生产活动区分开来:首先,每个人每天都需要食物,并且有权利获取它。其次,它很大程度上依赖于自然条件。这两个独特的因素,一个政治层面,一个自然层面,使得食物生产十分脆弱,并与其他行业都截然不同。与此同时,文化价值已深深地渗透进世界范围的食物与农业系统。

段落B

Farmers everywhere face major risks, including extreme weather, long-term climate change, and price volatility in input and product markets. However, smallholder farmers in developing countries must in addition deal with adverse environments, both natural, in terms of soil quality, rainfall, etc., and human, in terms of infrastructure, financial systems, markets, knowledge and technology. Counter-intuitively, hunger is prevalent among many smallholder farmers in the developing world.

世界各地的农民都面临着巨大风险,包括极端天气,长期的气候变化,以及原材料与产品市场的价格波动。然而,发展中国家的小农户文章来自老烤鸭雅思还要面临其他不利的环境条件,既有自然层面的,比如土壤质量、降水等;也有人文层面的,比如基础设施,金融体系,市场,知识和技术。与直观感受相反,饥饿在发展中国家许多小农户中十分普遍。

段落C

Participants in the online debate argued that our biggest challenge is to address the underlying causes of the agricultural system’s inability to ensure sufficient food for all, and they identified as drivers of this problem our dependency on fossil fuels and unsupportive government policies.

网上辩论的参与者认为,我们最大的挑战是找到农业体系无法为所有人提供充足食物的根本原因。他们将这一问题归结于我们对化石燃料的依赖,以及政府支持政策的缺失。

段落D

On the question of mitigating the risks farmers face, most essayists called for greater state intervention. In his essay, Kanayo F. Nwanze, President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development, argued that governments can significantly reduce risks for farmers by providing basic services like roads to get produce more efficiently to markets, or water and food storage facilities to reduce losses. Sophia Murphy, senior advisor to the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, suggested that the procurement and holding of stocks by governments can also help mitigate wild swings in food prices by alleviating uncertainties about market supply.

在降低农民所面临风险这一问题上,大多数分析者都呼吁更多的国家介入。国际农业发展基金会主席Kanayo F. Nwanze在文章中提到,政府可以通过提供基础服务(如修建道路以便产品可以更加高效地到达市场,或者修建水利和食物储藏设施来减少损失)降低农民的风险。农业与贸易政策机构的资深顾问Sophia Murphy认为,政府采购和贮藏也能够帮助通过降低市场供给的不确定性来减少食物价格的剧烈波动。

段落E

Shenggen Fan, Director General of the International Food Policy Research Institute, held up social safety nets and public welfare programmes in Ethiopia, Brazil and Mexico as valuable ways to address poverty among farming families and reduce their vulnerability to agriculture shocks. However, some commentators responded that cash transfers to poor families do not necessarily translate into increased food security, as these programmes do not always strengthen food production or raise incomes. Regarding state subsidies for agriculture, Rokeya Kabir, Executive Director of Bangladesh Nari Progati Sangha, commented in her essay that these ‘have not compensated for the stranglehold exercised by private traders. In fact, studies show that sixty percent of beneficiaries of subsidies are not poor, but rich landowners and non-farmer traders.’

国际粮食政策研究所所长Shenggen Fan认为埃塞俄比亚、巴西和墨西哥开展的社会保障和公共福利项目是一种解决农民家庭贫困问题并降低他们面对农业冲击时脆弱性的宝贵手段。然而,一些评论家回应,拨付给贫困家庭的资金不一定转化成更高的食物安全,因为这些项目并不总是能够加强农业生产或者提高收入。至于国家农业补贴,BNPS的执行理事Rokeya Kabir在她的文章中说到,“这些补贴并没有弥补个体商人所施加的束缚。事实上,研究表明60%的社会补贴受益者并不是贫困人口,而是富裕的地主以及非农民的中间商”。

段落F

Nwanze, Murphy and Fan argued that private risk management tools, like private insurance, commodity futures markets, and rural finance can help small-scale producers mitigate risk and allow for investment in improvements. Kabir warned that financial support schemes often encourage the adoption of high-input agricultural practices, which in the medium term may raise production costs beyond the value of their harvests. Murphy noted that when futures markets become excessively financialised they can contribute to short-term price volatility, which increases farmers’ food insecurity. Many participants and commentators emphasised that greater transparency in markets is needed to mitigate the impact of volatility, and make evident whether adequate stocks and supplies are available. Others contended that agribusiness companies should be held responsible for paying for negative side effects.

Nwanze,Murphy和Fan认为个人风险管理工具,比如私人保险,商品期货市场,以及乡村农业金融可以帮助小型生产者降低风险,并通过投资改善条件。Kabir警告,金融支持计划通常会鼓励采取高投入的农业实践。这在中期可能会使生产成本超过收获的价值。Murphy注意到,当期货市场高度金融化时,它们可能会加剧短期的价格波动,从而增加农民的粮食风险。许多参与者和评论家强调,需要更大的市场透明度来减弱价格波动的影响,并且要让是否有充足的库存和供应量变得显而易见。其他人认为,农业综合公司应该为副作用承担责任。

段落G

Many essayists mentioned climate change and its consequences for small-scale agricultureFan explained that ‘in addition to reducing crop yields, climate change increases the magnitude and the frequency of extreme weather events, which increase smallholder vulnerability.’ The growing unpredictability of weather patterns increases farmers’ difficulty in managing weather-related risks. According to this author, one solution would be to develop crop varieties that are more resilient to new climate trends and extreme weather patterns. Accordingly, Pat Mooney, co-founder and executive director of the ETC Group, suggested that ‘if we are to survive climate change, we must adopt policies that let peasants diversify the plant and animal species and varieties/breeds that make up our menus.’

许多分析家提到气候变化以及它对小规模农业的影响。Fan解释到,“除了降低粮食产量之外,气候变化还增加了极端天气的程度和频率,从而让小农户变得更加脆弱”。天气模式的日益不可预测性增加了农民在管理天气相关风险时的难度。根据这位作者的观点,一种解决方案是提升粮食多样性,以适应新的气候趋势和极端天气模式。相应的,ETC集团的联合创始人兼执行理事Pat Mooney认为,“如果我们想在气候变化中生存,我们必须采取相应政策,让农民丰富出现在我们菜单上的农作物和牲畜的种类。

段落H

Some participating authors and commentators argued in favour of community-based and autonomous risk management strategies through collective action groups, co-operatives or producers’ groups. Such groups enhance market opportunities for small-scale producers, reduce marketing costs and synchronise buying and selling with seasonal price conditions. According to Murphy, ‘collective action offers an important way for farmers to strengthen their political and economic bargaining power, and to reduce their business risks.’ One commentator, Giel Ton, warned that collective action does not come as a free good. It takes time, effort and money to organise, build trust and to experiment. Others, like Marcel Vernooij and Marcel Beukeboom, suggested that in order to ‘apply what we already know’, all stakeholders, including business, government, scientists and civil society, must work together, starting at the beginning of the value chain.

一些参与作者和评论家青睐基于社区并自主运行的风险管理策略。这种策略通过集体行动小组、合作社以及生产者团体实现。这些团体可以提升小规模生产者的市场机会,降低营销成本,并使买卖与季节性的价格条件相同步。根据Murphy的观点,“集体行动为农民提供了一种重要的方式来加强他们政治与经济的议价能力,并降低他们的商业风险。一名评论者,Giel Ton警告,集体行动并不是唾手可得。它需要时间、精力和金钱来组织、建立信任并进行实验。其他人,比如Marcel Vernooij和Marcel Beukeboom认为,为了应用我们已经知道的方法,包括企业、政府、科学家和市民社会在内的所有利益相关方必须从价值链的起点开始,一起努力。

段落I

Some participants explained that market price volatility is often worsened by the presence of intermediary purchasers who, taking advantage of farmers’ vulnerabilitydictate prices. One commentator suggested farmers can gain greater control over prices and minimise price volatility by selling directly to consumers. Similarly, Sonali Bisht, founder and advisor to the Institute of Himalayan Environmental Research and Education (INHERE), India, wrote that community-supported agriculture, where consumers invest in local farmers by subscription and guarantee producers a fair price, is a risk-sharing model worth more attention. Direct food distribution systems not only encourage small-scale agriculture but also give consumers more control over the food they consume, she wrote.

一些参与者解释到,中间商的存在往往会加剧市场价格波动。他们利用农民的脆弱性操纵价格。一名评论者认为,农民可以通过直接向消费者出售商品来获得更大的价格控制权,并使价格波动最小化。相似的,印度喜马拉雅环境研究与教育机构的创始人和顾问Sonali Bisht写到,社区互助农业是一种值得关注的风险分摊模式。在这种模式中,消费者通过订购和承诺生产者一个公平的价格来投资当地农民。她写道,食物直销系统不仅会鼓励小规模农业,而且还能让消费者对他们所消费的食物有更多的控制。

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