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剑桥雅思12Test5Passage1阅读原文翻译 cork 木栓 剑桥雅思12阅读第五套题目第一篇文章的主题 […]

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剑桥雅思12Test5Passage1阅读原文翻译 cork 木栓

剑桥雅思12阅读第五套题目第一篇文章的主题为木栓。文章分为7段,分别介绍了木栓具有广泛的用途,其特殊的细胞结构,生长地区,收割方式,替代产品等内容,下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及对应的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思12 test 5 passage 1 栓皮栎树cork

剑桥雅思12Test5Passage1阅读答案解析 Cork 木栓

剑桥雅思12 Test5 Passage1阅读原文翻译

第1段

Cork – the thick bark of the cork oak tree (Quercus suber) – is a remarkable material. It is tough, elasticbuoyant, and fire-resistant, and suitable for a wide range of purposes. It has also been used for millennia: the ancient Egyptians sealed their sarcophagi (stone coffins) with cork, while the ancient Greeks and Romans used it for anything from beehives to sandals.

木栓,即栓皮橡树(栓皮槠)厚实的树皮,是一种非凡的材料。它坚韧,有弹性,能浮起来,而且还防火,适用于各种目的。它已经被人们使用了数千年:埃及人用木栓来密封他们的石棺,而希腊人和罗马人则用它制作从蜂箱到凉鞋等各种物品。

第2段

And the cork oak itself is an extraordinary tree. Its bark grows up to 20cm in thickness, insulating the tree like a coat wrapped around the trunk and branches and keeping the inside at a constant 20°C all year round. Developed most probably as a defence against forest fires, the bark of the cork oak has a particular cellular structure – with about 40 million cells per cubic centimetre – that technology has never succeeded in replicating. The cells are filled with air, which is why cork is so buoyant. It also has an elasticity that means you can squash it and watch it spring back to its original size and shape when you release the pressure.

栓皮橡树本身就是一种不同寻常的树木。它的树皮可以长到20厘米厚,像外衣一样将树干和枝杈包裹起来,保持内部温度全年恒定在20度。很有可能是为了对抗森林火灾才形成的特点,栓皮橡树的树皮文章来自老烤鸭雅思有着一种独特的细胞结构-每立方厘米大约有4千万个细胞。这种结构从来都没有被技术成功的复制过。细胞中充满了空气,这也是为什么木栓浮力如此之大的原因。它同样富有弹性。这意味着你可以将它挤压变形。释放压力后,看着它恢复原来的形状和大小。

第3段

Cork oaks grow in a number of Mediterranean countries, including Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece and Morocco. They flourish in warm, sunny climates where there is a minimum of 400 millimetres of rain per year, and not more than 800 millimetres. Like grape vines, the trees thrive in poor soil, putting down deep roots in search of moisture and nutrients. Southern Portugal’s Alentejo region meets all of these requirements, which explains why, by the early 20th century, this region had become the world’s largest producer of cork, and why today it accounts for roughly half of all cork production around the world.

栓皮橡树生长在许多地中海国家,包括葡萄牙、西班牙、意大利、希腊和摩洛哥。它们在温暖、阳光充沛的地区中茂盛生长。那里每年降水量不小于400厘米,但又不多于800厘米。像葡萄藤一样,这些树木在贫瘠的土地中茁壮生长。它们的根系深入土地以寻找水分和养料。葡萄牙南部的Alentejo地区符合所有这些要求。这也是该地区在20世纪初成为世界上最大的木栓生产商的原因,以及为什么直到今天,它还占着全世界木栓产量的一半左右。

第4段

Most cork forests are family-owned. Many of these family businesses, and indeed many of the trees themselves, are around 200 years old. Cork production is, above all, an exercise in patience. From the planting of a cork sapling to the first harvest takes 25 years, and a gap of approximately a decade must separate harvests from an individual tree. And for top-quality cork, it’s necessary to wait a further 15 or 20 years. You even have to wait for the right kind of summer’s day to harvest cork. If the bark is stripped on a day when it’s too cold – or when the air is damp – the tree will be damaged.

大多数栓皮森林为家族所有。许多这些家族企业,以及树木自身,都有着200年左右的历史。木栓生产是一种十分需要耐心的操作。从种下栓皮幼树到第一次收获需要25年,而且每棵树的收割要间隔大约10年。对于最高品质的木栓来说,必须继续等待15或20年才可以。人们甚至还要等待合适的夏日天气才能收割木栓。如果剥离树皮的天气太过寒冷,或者空气太过潮湿,树木就会被损坏。

第5段

Cork harvesting is a very specialised profession. No mechanical means of stripping cork bark has been invented, so the job is done by teams of highly skilled workers. First, they make vertical cuts down the bark using small sharp axes, then lever it away in pieces as large as they can manage. The most skilful cork-strippers prise away a semi-circular husk that runs the length of the trunk from just above ground level to the first branches. It is then dried on the ground for about four months, before being taken to factories, where it is boiled to kill any insects that might remain in the cork. Over 60% of cork then goes on to be made into traditional bottle stoppers, with most of the remainder being used in the construction trade. Corkboard and cork tiles are ideal for thermal and acoustic insulation, while granules of cork are used in the manufacture of concrete.

木栓收割是一种高度专业化的职业。至今还没有发明机器剥离栓皮的方法,所以这些工作由技艺高超的工人完成。首先,他们用锋利的小型斧头在树皮上垂直切下,然后将它一点点的撬开。木片越大越好。技艺最纯熟的栓皮工人会撬出一片半圆形的树皮,其长度相当于地面到第一节树枝的树干长度。被放在地面上干燥4个月左右之后,它会被送到工厂里去。在那里通过加热煮沸来杀死可能残留在栓皮中的各种昆虫。60%以上的栓皮随后被用于制作传统瓶塞,剩下的大部分会被用于建筑行业。软木板和软木砖是理想的隔热、隔音材料,而软木颗粒则被用于混凝土的制造。

第6段

Recent years have seen the end of the virtual monopoly of cork as the material for bottle stoppers, due to concerns about the effect it may have on the contents of the bottle. This is caused by a chemical compound called 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), which forms through the interaction of plant phenols, chlorine and mould. The tiniest concentrations – as little as three or four parts to a trillion – can spoil the taste of the product contained in the bottle. The result has been a gradual yet steady move first towards plastic stoppers and, more recently, to aluminium screw caps. These substitutes are cheaper to manufacture and, in the case of screw caps, more convenient for the user.

由于担心软木塞可能会影响瓶子中的液体,它作为瓶塞材料的实际垄断地位在最近几年迎来了终结。这是由一种叫做2,4,6-三聚苯甲醚的化合物引起的。这种化合物会在植物酚,氯和霉菌的相互作用中形成。哪怕是极其微小的浓度-低至每万亿三到四单位-也会破坏瓶中产品的口味。因此,人们先是逐渐却坚定的使用塑料瓶塞,最近又转向铝制螺旋盖。这些替代品不仅制造起来更为便宜,而且螺旋瓶盖对用户来说也更加方便。

第7段

The classic cork stopper does have several advantages, however. Firstly, its traditional image is more in keeping with that of the type of high quality goods with which it has long been associated. Secondly – and very importantly – cork is a sustainable product that can be recycled without difficulty. Moreover, cork forests are a resource which support local biodiversity, and prevent desertification in the regions where they are planted. So, given the current concerns about environmental issues, the future of this ancient material once again looks promising.

然而,经典的软木瓶塞确实有几项优势。首先,它的传统形象与高品质物品更为匹配。这些东西与它长期联系在一起。其次并且很重要的是,木栓是一种可以轻易回收的可持续产品。第三,栓木森林的资源可以支持当地的生物多样性,并阻止其所种植地区的沙漠化。所以,考虑到当前对环境问题的担忧,这一古老材料的未来看起来再一次充满了希望。

剑桥雅思12Test5Passage2阅读原文翻译 Collecting as a hobby 作为爱好的收藏

剑桥雅思12Test5Passage3阅读原文翻译 What’s the purpose of gaining knowledge 获取知识的目的是什么

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剑桥雅思12Test5Passage1阅读原文翻译 cork:等您坐沙发呢!

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