剑桥雅思15Test4Passage1阅读原文翻译 The return of the huarango Huarango树的回归
剑桥雅思15 Test4 Passage1阅读原文翻译
The south coast of Peru is a narrow, 2,000-kilometre-long strip of desert squeezed between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean. It is also one of the most fragile ecosystems on Earth. It hardly ever rains there, and the only year-round source of water is located tens of metres below the surface. This is why the huarango tree is so suited to life there: it has the longest roots of any tree in the world. They stretch down 50-80 metres and, as well as sucking up water for the tree, they bring it into the higher subsoil, creating a water source for other plant life.
Dr David Beresford-Jones, archaeobotanist at Cambridge University, has been studying the role of the huarango tree in landscape change in the Lower lea Valley in southern Peru. He believes the huarango was key to the ancient people’s diet and, because it could reach deep water sources, it allowed local people to withstand years of drought when their other crops failed. But over the centuries huarango trees were gradually replaced with crops. Cutting down native woodland leads to erosion, as there is nothing to keep the soil in place. So when the huarangos go, the land turns into a desert. Nothing grows at all in the Lower lea Valley now.
剑桥大学考古植物学家David Bereford-Jones博士，一直在研究huarango树在秘鲁南部Lower lea Valley的景色变化中所起的作用。他认为huarango对古代居民的饮食十分重要。因为它能够到达深层水源，让当地居民可以在其他作物歉收的时候忍受数年的干旱。但几个世纪以来，huarango逐渐被粮食作物所取代。对当地林地的砍伐导致水土流失，因为没有任何东西能够固定住土壤。所以，当huarango消失时，土地就变为沙漠。如今没有任何东西能够在Lower lea Valley生长。
For centuries the huarango tree was vital to the people of the neighbouring Middle lea Valley too. They grew vegetables under it and ate products made from its seed pods. Its leaves and bark were used for herbal remedies, while its branches were used for charcoal for cooking and heating, and its trunk was used to build houses. But now it is disappearing rapidly. The majority of the huarango forests in the valley have already been cleared for fuel and agriculture – initially, these were smallholdings, but now they’re huge farms producing crops for the international market.
几个世纪以来，huarango树对隔壁Middle lea Valley的居民也同样重要。他们在它下面种植蔬菜，食用其种荚制成的产品。它的叶子和树皮被当作草药使用，枝干作为木炭文章来自老烤鸭雅思用于做饭和加热，而树干则用于建造房屋。但它如今也在快速消失。山谷中大部分huarango森林已经被清理出来，要么当作燃料使用，要么为农业腾出地方。一开始，这些只是小块的耕地，但现在它们已经变成为国际市场生产粮食的巨大农场。
‘Of the forests that were here 1,000 years ago, 99 per cent have already gone,’ says botanist Oliver Whaley from Kew Gardens in London, who, together with ethnobotanist Dr William Milliken, is running a pioneering project to protect and restore the rapidly disappearing habitat. In order to succeed, Whaley needs to get the local people on board, and that has meant overcoming local prejudices. ‘Increasingly aspirational communities think that if you plant food trees in your home or street, it shows you are poor, and still need to grow your own food,’ he says. In order to stop the Middle lea Valley going the same way as the Lower lea Valley, Whaley is encouraging locals to love the huarangos again. ‘It’s a process of cultural resuscitation,’ he says. He has already set up a huarango festival to reinstate a sense of pride in their eco-heritage, and has helped local schoolchildren plant thousands of trees.
“一千年前这里存在的森林中，99%都已经消失了”，伦敦皇家植物园的植物学家Oliver Whaley说。他与民族植物学家William Milliken博士一起，正在运作一个开创性的项目，以保护和修复这一正在快速消失的栖息地。为了取得成功，Whaley需要得到当地居民的支持，而这意味着要克服当地人的偏见。“越来越多渴望成功的社区认为，如果你在家里或者街道上种植可食用的树木，这就表明你很穷，仍然需要种植自己吃的东西”，他说。为了避免Middle lea Valley走上Lower lea Valley同样的道路，Whaley正鼓励当地人再次喜欢上huarangos。“这是一个文化复兴的过程”，他说。他设立了huarango节来恢复人们对他们生态遗产的自豪感，并已经帮助当地在校儿童种植了数千颗树木。
‘In order to get people interested in habitat restoration, you need to plant a tree that is useful to them,’ says Whaley. So, he has been working with local families to attempt to create a sustainable income from the huarangos by turning their products into foodstuffs. ‘Boil up the beans and you get this thick brown syrup like molasses. You can also use it in drinks, soups or stews. ‘ The pods can be ground into flour to make cakes, and the seeds roasted into a sweet, chocolatey ‘coffee’. ‘It’s packed full of vitamins and minerals, ‘ Whaley says.
And some farmers are already planting huarangos. Alberto Benevides, owner of lea Valley’s only certified organic farm, which Whaley helped set up, has been planting the tree for 13 years. He produces syrup and flour, and sells these products at an organic farmers’ market in Lima. His farm is relatively small and doesn’t yet provide him with enough to live on, but he hopes this will change. ‘The organic market is growing rapidly in Peru, ‘ Benevides says. ‘I am investing in the future.
一些农民已经开始种植huarangos。Alberto Benevides，lea Valley中唯一一个经过认证的有机农场的主人（该农场正式Whaley帮忙建造的），种植这种树木已经13年了。他生产糖浆和面粉，并在利马的一个有机农贸市场里销售这些产品。他的农场规模相对较小，无法满足他的生活需要，但他希望这在未来会有所改变。“有机市场在秘鲁发展很快”，Benevides说，“我是在投资未来”。
But even if Whaley can convince the local people to fall in love with the huarango again, there is still the threat of the larger farms. Some of these cut across the forests and break up the corridors that allow the essential movement of mammals, birds and pollen up and down the narrow forest strip. In the hope of counteracting this, he’s persuading farmers to let him plant forest corridors on their land. He believes the extra woodland will also benefit the farms by reducing their water usage through a lowering of evaporation and providing a refuge for bio-control insects.
‘If we can record biodiversity and see how it all works, then we’re in a good position to move on from there. Desert habitats can reduce down to very little, ‘ Whaley explains. ‘It’s not like a rainforest that needs to have this huge expanse. Life has always been confined to corridors and islands here. If you just have a few trees left, the population can grow up quickly because it’s used to exploiting water when it arrives.’ He sees his project as a model that has the potential to be rolled out across other arid areas around the world. ‘If we can do it here, in the most fragile system on Earth, then that’s a real message of hope for lots of places, including Africa, where there is drought and they just can’t afford to wait for rain.’