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剑桥雅思15Test4Passage1阅读原文翻译 The return of the huarango Hu […]

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剑桥雅思15Test4Passage1阅读原文翻译 The return of the huarango Huarango树的回归

剑桥雅思15阅读第四套题目第一篇文章的主题为秘鲁某种树木的回归。文章一共8段,大体介绍了huarango在秘鲁生长的原因,如今所面临的困境,人们采取的保护措施,以及目前取得的成果。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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剑桥雅思15Test4Passage1阅读答案解析 The return of the huarango huarango树的回归

剑桥雅思15 Test4 Passage1阅读原文翻译

第1段

The south coast of Peru is a narrow, 2,000-kilometre-long strip of desert squeezed between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean. It is also one of the most fragile ecosystems on Earth. It hardly ever rains there, and the only year-round source of water is located tens of metres below the surface. This is why the huarango tree is so suited to life there: it has the longest roots of any tree in the world. They stretch down 50-80 metres and, as well as sucking up water for the tree, they bring it into the higher subsoil, creating a water source for other plant life.

夹在安第斯山脉和太平洋之间的秘鲁南岸,是一条绵延2000公里的狭长沙漠地带。它也是地球上最为脆弱的生态系统之一。那里几乎从不下雨。全年唯一可用的水源位于地表数十米之下。这就是huarango如此适合在那里生存的原因:它拥有世界上所有树木中最长的根系。它们向下延伸50到80米,为树木吸收水分的同时,他们还将水分带到更高的底土中,为其他植物的生存创造水源。

第2段

Dr David Beresford-Jones, archaeobotanist at Cambridge University, has been studying the role of the huarango tree in landscape change in the Lower lea Valley in southern Peru. He believes the huarango was key to the ancient people’s diet and, because it could reach deep water sources, it allowed local people to withstand years of drought when their other crops failed. But over the centuries huarango trees were gradually replaced with crops. Cutting down native woodland leads to erosion, as there is nothing to keep the soil in place. So when the huarangos go, the land turns into a desert. Nothing grows at all in the Lower lea Valley now.

剑桥大学考古植物学家David Bereford-Jones博士,一直在研究huarango树在秘鲁南部Lower lea Valley的景色变化中所起的作用。他认为huarango对古代居民的饮食十分重要。因为它能够到达深层水源,让当地居民可以在其他作物歉收的时候忍受数年的干旱。但几个世纪以来,huarango逐渐被粮食作物所取代。对当地林地的砍伐导致水土流失,因为没有任何东西能够固定住土壤。所以,当huarango消失时,土地就变为沙漠。如今没有任何东西能够在Lower lea Valley生长。

第3段

For centuries the huarango tree was vital to the people of the neighbouring Middle lea Valley too. They grew vegetables under it and ate products made from its seed pods. Its leaves and bark were used for herbal remedies, while its branches were used for charcoal for cooking and heating, and its trunk was used to build houses. But now it is disappearing rapidly. The majority of the huarango forests in the valley have already been cleared for fuel and agriculture – initially, these were smallholdings, but now they’re huge farms producing crops for the international market.

几个世纪以来,huarango树对隔壁Middle lea Valley的居民也同样重要。他们在它下面种植蔬菜,食用其种荚制成的产品。它的叶子和树皮被当作草药使用,枝干作为木炭文章来自老烤鸭雅思用于做饭和加热,而树干则用于建造房屋。但它如今也在快速消失。山谷中大部分huarango森林已经被清理出来,要么当作燃料使用,要么为农业腾出地方。一开始,这些只是小块的耕地,但现在它们已经变成为国际市场生产粮食的巨大农场。

第4段

‘Of the forests that were here 1,000 years ago, 99 per cent have already gone,’ says botanist Oliver Whaley from Kew Gardens in London, who, together with ethnobotanist Dr William Milliken, is running a pioneering project to protect and restore the rapidly disappearing habitat. In order to succeed, Whaley needs to get the local people on board, and that has meant overcoming local prejudices. ‘Increasingly aspirational communities think that if you plant food trees in your home or street, it shows you are poor, and still need to grow your own food,’ he says. In order to stop the Middle lea Valley going the same way as the Lower lea Valley, Whaley is encouraging locals to love the huarangos again. ‘It’s a process of cultural resuscitation,’ he says. He has already set up a huarango festival to reinstate a sense of pride in their eco-heritage, and has helped local schoolchildren plant thousands of trees.

“一千年前这里存在的森林中,99%都已经消失了”,伦敦皇家植物园的植物学家Oliver Whaley说。他与民族植物学家William Milliken博士一起,正在运作一个开创性的项目,以保护和修复这一正在快速消失的栖息地。为了取得成功,Whaley需要得到当地居民的支持,而这意味着要克服当地人的偏见。“越来越多渴望成功的社区认为,如果你在家里或者街道上种植可食用的树木,这就表明你很穷,仍然需要种植自己吃的东西”,他说。为了避免Middle lea Valley走上Lower lea Valley同样的道路,Whaley正鼓励当地人再次喜欢上huarangos。“这是一个文化复兴的过程”,他说。他设立了huarango节来恢复人们对他们生态遗产的自豪感,并已经帮助当地在校儿童种植了数千颗树木。

第5段

‘In order to get people interested in habitat restoration, you need to plant a tree that is useful to them,’ says Whaley. So, he has been working with local families to attempt to create a sustainable income from the huarangos by turning their products into foodstuffs. ‘Boil up the beans and you get this thick brown syrup like molasses. You can also use it in drinks, soups or stews. ‘ The pods can be ground into flour to make cakes, and the seeds roasted into a sweet, chocolatey ‘coffee’. ‘It’s packed full of vitamins and minerals, ‘ Whaley says.

“为了让人们对栖息地的重建产生兴趣,你得种植一种对他们有用的树木”,Whaley说。因此,他一直在与当地家庭合作,尝试通过将huarango的产品制成食物来创造一条可持续的收入来源。“把豆子煮开,你就会得到这种粘稠的棕色糖浆。你也可以在饮料、汤或者炖菜中使用它”。种荚可以被碾成粉制作蛋糕,种子可以烘培成香甜的、巧克力味“咖啡”。“它富含维生素和矿物质”,Whaley说。

第6段

And some farmers are already planting huarangos. Alberto Benevides, owner of lea Valley’s only certified organic farm, which Whaley helped set up, has been planting the tree for 13 years. He produces syrup and flour, and sells these products at an organic farmers’ market in Lima. His farm is relatively small and doesn’t yet provide him with enough to live on, but he hopes this will change. ‘The organic market is growing rapidly in Peru, ‘ Benevides says. ‘I am investing in the future.

一些农民已经开始种植huarangos。Alberto Benevides,lea Valley中唯一一个经过认证的有机农场的主人(该农场正式Whaley帮忙建造的),种植这种树木已经13年了。他生产糖浆和面粉,并在利马的一个有机农贸市场里销售这些产品。他的农场规模相对较小,无法满足他的生活需要,但他希望这在未来会有所改变。“有机市场在秘鲁发展很快”,Benevides说,“我是在投资未来”。

第7段

But even if Whaley can convince the local people to fall in love with the huarango again, there is still the threat of the larger farms. Some of these cut across the forests and break up the corridors that allow the essential movement of mammals, birds and pollen up and down the narrow forest strip. In the hope of counteracting this, he’s persuading farmers to let him plant forest corridors on their land. He believes the extra woodland will also benefit the farms by reducing their water usage through a lowering of evaporation and providing a refuge for bio-control insects.

但即使Whaley能够说服当地居民再次爱上Huarango,大型农场的威胁也仍然存在。其中一些砍伐森林,破坏让哺乳动物、鸟类和花粉得以在狭长森林地带移动的关键走廊。为了消除这一影响,他正在劝说农民让他在他们的土地上种植森林走廊。他认为,通过减少蒸发降低水资源的使用,以及为生物防治的昆虫提供栖息地,额外的林地也可以让农民受益。

第8段

‘If we can record biodiversity and see how it all works, then we’re in a good position to move on from there. Desert habitats can reduce down to very little, ‘ Whaley explains. ‘It’s not like a rainforest that needs to have this huge expanse. Life has always been confined to corridors and islands here. If you just have a few trees left, the population can grow up quickly because it’s used to exploiting water when it arrives.’ He sees his project as a model that has the potential to be rolled out across other arid areas around the world. ‘If we can do it here, in the most fragile system on Earth, then that’s a real message of hope for lots of places, including Africa, where there is drought and they just can’t afford to wait for rain.’

“如果我们能够记录生物多样性,并看到它是如何运作的,那么我们就有了一个从这里继续前进的优秀起点。沙漠栖息地的面积可以缩减的非常小”,Whaley解释道,“它不像雨林那样需要极大的面积。生命一直都只存在于这里的走廊和岛屿。如果你只剩下几棵树木,其数量也会在水到来时迅速生长,因为它们习惯于充分利用水源”。他将他的项目视为一个有潜力推广到世界其他干旱地区的样板。“如果我们能够在这里-世界上生态系统最为脆弱的地方-做到这一点,那么它对于包括非洲在内的许多地方都是一条充满希望的信息。那些地方干旱横行,而他们已经无法承担等候雨水来临的代价”。

剑桥雅思15Test4Passage2阅读原文翻译 Silbo Gomero – the whistle language of the Canary Islands 加那利群岛的口哨语言

剑桥雅思15Test4Passage3阅读原文翻译 Environmental practices of big business 大企业的环保实践

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剑桥雅思15Test4Passage1阅读原文翻译 The return of the huarango:等您坐沙发呢!

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