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剑桥雅思15Test1Passage2阅读原文翻译 driverless cars 无人驾驶 剑桥雅思15阅读 […]

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剑桥雅思15Test1Passage2阅读原文翻译 driverless cars 无人驾驶

剑桥雅思15阅读第一套题目第二篇文章的主题为无人驾驶。文章一共7部分12自然段,分别介绍了自动驾驶出现的原因,它对社会各方面的影响,以及实施过程中可能会遇到的困难。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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剑桥雅思15Test1Passage2阅读答案解析 Driverless cars 无人驾驶

剑桥雅思15 Test1 Passage2阅读原文翻译

A部分

The automotive sector is well used to adapting to automation in manufacturing. The implementation of robotic car manufacture from the 1970s onwards led to significant cost savings and improvements in the reliability and flexibility of vehicle mass production. A new challenge to vehicle production is now on the horizon and, again, it comes from automation. However, this time it is not to do with the manufacturing process, but with the vehicles themselves.

汽车部门早就很好的适应了生产过程中的自动化。自20世纪70年代采用机器人制造汽车以来,汽车大规模生产成本大幅下降,并且可靠性与灵活性有所提升。现在,汽车生产又出现新的挑战,而且它仍然来自自动化。然而,这一次它与制造过程无关,而是关于汽车自身。

Research projects on vehicle automation are not new. Vehicles with limited self-driving capabilities have been around for more than 50 years, resulting in significant contributions towards driver assistance systems. But since Google announced in 2010 that it had been trialling self-driving cars on the streets of California, progress in this field has quickly gathered pace.

汽车自动化方面的研究项目并不是什么新鲜事。带有有限自动驾驶功能的汽车已经出现了50多年,为驾驶辅助系统做出重大贡献。但自从谷歌于2010年宣布,它正在加利福尼亚的街头测试自动驾驶汽车,该领域的进展速度明显加快。

B部分

There are many reasons why technology is advancing so fast. One frequently cited motive is safety; indeed, research at the UK’s Transport Research Laboratory has demonstrated that more than 90 percent of road collisions involve human error as a contributory factor, and it is the primary cause in the vast majority. Automation may help to reduce the incidence of this.

有很多原因可以解释为什么科技进步如此之快。一项经常被提及的动机是安全。确实,英国交通研究实验室的研究已经证明,90%以上的道路碰撞事故都涉及人为错误,而且它还是绝大多数事故的主要原因。自动化或许可以帮助减少此类事情的发生。

Another aim is to free the time people spend driving for other purposes. If the vehicle can do some or all of the driving, it may be possible to be productive, to socialise or simply to relax while automation systems have responsibility for safe control of the vehicle. If the vehicle can do the driving, those who are challenged by existing mobility models – such as older or disabled travellers – may be able to enjoy significantly greater travel autonomy.

另外一项目的是将人类用于驾驶的时间解放出来以投入其他目标。如果汽车能够进行部分或者所有的驾驶工作,那么在自动驾驶系统为安全操控负责时,人们就可以进行工作、社交或者仅仅是放松一下。如果汽车能够自动驾驶,那么那些受困于现有移动模式的人-比如老年人或者残疾人-就可以享受更大程度的出行自由。

C部分

Beyond these direct benefits, we can consider the wider implications for transport and society, and how manufacturing processes might need to respond as a result. At present, the average car spends more than 90 percent of its life parked. Automation means that initiatives for car-sharing become much more viable, particularly in urban areas with significant travel demand. If a significant proportion of the population choose to use shared automated vehicles, mobility demand can be met by far fewer vehicles.

除了这些直接的好处,我们还可以设想这一变革给交通和社会带来的更广泛的影响,以及制造过程可能因此需要做出怎样的应对。目前,平均一辆车有90%以上的时间都停泊不动。自动化意味着汽车共享的提议变得更加可行,尤其是在拥有大量出行需求的城市地区。如果大部分人口选择使用共享汽车,那么极少量汽车就可以满足移动需求。

D部分

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology investigated automated mobility in Singapore, finding that fewer than 30 percent of the vehicles currently used would be required if fully automated car sharing could be implemented. If this is the case, it might mean that we need to manufacture far fewer vehicles to meet demand.

麻省理工学院在新加坡研究自动化的出行方案,发现如果实行全自动汽车共享的话,只需要当前汽车使用量的不到30%即可。如果事实真的如此,这可能意味着我们只需要生产远少于现在的汽车就能够满足需求。

However, the number of trips being taken would probably increase, partly because empty vehicles would have to be moved from one customer to the next.

然而,旅程次数可能会有所上升,部分原因在于空置车辆需要从一位顾客前往下一位顾客那里。

Modelling work by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute suggests automated vehicles might reduce vehicle ownership by 43 percent, but that vehicles’ average annual mileage would double as a result. As a consequence, each vehicle would be used more intensively, and might need replacing sooner. This faster rate of turnover may mean that vehicle production will not necessarily decrease.

密歇根大学交通研究院所搭建的模型显示,自动化汽车也许会将汽车保有量降低43%,但结果是汽车的平均年行驶里程会翻倍。这样一来,每辆车的使用会更加频繁,并需要更快的进行更换。这一更快的置换率可能意味着汽车生产未必会下降。

E部分

Automation may prompt other changes in vehicle manufacture. If we move to a model where consumers are tending not to own a single vehicle but to purchase access to a range of vehicles through a mobility provider, drivers will have the freedom to select one that best suits their needs for a particular journey, rather than making a compromise across all their requirements.

自动化可能会推动汽车制造领域的其他变化。如果我们切换成这样一种模式:消费者不再想要拥有自己的车辆,而是通过某个移动交通工具供应商购买一系列汽车的使用权,那么司机将可以自由选择最能满足他们特定旅程需要的汽车,而不是通盘考虑所有需求进行妥协。

Since, for most of the time, most of the seats in most cars are unoccupied, this may boost production of a smaller, more efficient range of vehicles that suit the needs of individuals. Specialised vehicles may then be available for exceptional journeys, such as going on a family camping trip or helping a son or daughter move to university.

由于大部分汽车的大部分座位在大多数时间都是空置的,这可能会推动生产一系列更小、更加高效的车辆以满足个人需求。到那时可能会出现为独特旅程定制的车辆,如家庭野营之旅或者送子女去上大学。

F部分

There are a number of hurdles to overcome in delivering automated vehicles to our roads. These include the technical difficulties in ensuring that the vehicle works reliably in the infinite range of traffic, weather and road situations it might encounter; the regulatory challenges in understanding how liability and enforcement might change when drivers are no longer essential for vehicle operation; and the societal changes that may be required for communities to trust and accept automated vehicles as being a valuable part of the mobility landscape.

在自动化汽车上路之前,还有许多困难需要克服。它们包括确保汽车能够在各种可能遇到的交通、天气和道路状况下可靠行驶的技术困难;当司机不再是汽车运行的必要元素时,如何理解责任和义务相应变化的规则挑战,以及民众信任和接受自动化汽车作为出行图景中颇具价值的组成部分所需要的社会转变。

G部分

It’s clear that there are many challenges that need to be addressed but, through robust and targeted research, these can most probably be conquered within the next 10 years. Mobility will change in such potentially significant ways and in association with so many other technological developments, such as telepresence and virtual reality, that it is hard to make concrete predictions about the future. However, one thing is certain: change is coming, and the need to be flexible in response to this will be vital for those involved in manufacturing the vehicles that will deliver future mobility.

显然,仍然有许多挑战等待解决,但通过富有活力并且目标明确的研究,这些问题很有可能在接下来的10年里得以克服。出行方式将会发生意义深远的变化,再加上如此多的其他技术的发展(比如远程呈现以及虚拟现实),我们很难对未来做出具体的预测。然而,有一点是肯定的:变化即将到来。在应对这一变化时保持灵活,对于那些牵扯到汽车制造,并为未来提供交通工具的各方团体来说至关重要。

剑桥雅思15Test1Passage1阅读原文翻译 Nutmeg – a valuable spice 肉豆蔻

剑桥雅思15Test1Passage3阅读原文翻译 What is exploration 探索是什么

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