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剑桥雅思17Test1Passage2阅读原文翻译 Stadiums: Past, present and f […]

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剑桥雅思17Test1Passage2阅读原文翻译 Stadiums: Past, present and future 体育场的过去,现在与未来

剑桥雅思17阅读第一套题目第二篇文章的主题为体育场的过去,现在和未来。它首先说明如今体育场馆所面临的尴尬情况,然后描述古代圆形露天竞技场随着时代变化而进行的改变,最后提到现代体育场发展的最新趋势。下面是具体每一段的翻译,以供大家参考。

剑桥雅思17 Test1 Passage2阅读原文翻译

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A部分

Stadiums are among the oldest forms of urban architecture: vast stadiums where the public could watch sporting events were at the centre of western city life as far back as the ancient Greek and Roman Empires, well before the construction of the great medieval cathedrals and the grand 19th- and 20th-century railway stations which dominated urban skylines in later eras.

体育场是最古老的城市建筑形式之一:早在古希腊和罗马帝国时期,供公众观看运动项目的大型体育场就位于西方城市生活的中心,远在后来主导城市天际线的中世纪大型教堂和19、20世纪宏伟的火车站之前。

Today, however, stadiums are regarded with growing scepticism. Construction costs can soar above £1 billion, and stadiums finished for major events such as the Olympic Games or the FIFA World Cup have notably fallen into disuse and disrepair.

然而,如今,体育场越来越受到人们的怀疑。其建造成本能够高出10亿英镑。为奥运会或者FIFA世界杯等大型项目修建完工的体育场更是造人废弃,破败不堪。

But this need not be the case. History shows that stadiums can drive urban development and adapt to the culture of every age. Even today, architects and planners are finding new ways to adapt the mono-functional sports arenas which became emblematic of modernisation during the 20th century.

但这种情况并非必然。历史表明,体育场能够推动城市发展,并适应各个年代的文化。即便是现在,设计师和规划者也在寻找调整单一功能运动场地的新方法。而这些运动场已经成为20世纪现代化进程的象征。

B部分

The amphitheatre of Arles in southwest France, with a capacity of 25,000 spectators, is perhaps the best example of just how versatile stadiums can be. Built by the Romans in 90 AD, it became a fortress with four towers after the fifth century, and was then transformed into a village containing more than 200 houses. With the growing interest in conservation during the 19th century, it was converted back into an arena for the staging of bullfights, thereby returning the structure to its original use as a venue for public spectacles.

法国西南部能够容纳25000名观众的阿尔勒圆形露天竞技场或许是运动场具备多种功能的最佳例证。由罗马人在公元90年修建完成,它在5世纪之后成为拥有四个塔台的堡垒,随后又被改建成容纳200多座房子的村庄。19世纪,随着保护意识的提升,它被改回运动场,用于举办斗牛比赛,从而回归到其最初的用途-举办大型公共事项的场地。

Another example is the imposing arena of Verona in northern Italy, with space for 30,000 spectators, which was built 60 years before the Arles amphitheatre and 40 years before Rome’s famous Colosseum. It has endured the centuries and is currently considered one of the world’s prime sites for opera, thanks to its outstanding acoustics.

另一个例子是意大利北部壮观的维罗纳竞技场。它可以容纳30000名观众,修建时间比阿尔勒圆形露天竞技场早60年,比著名的罗马斗兽场早40年。它在随后的十几个世纪中留存下来。由于优秀的音响效果,它如今被认为是世界上歌剧演出的最佳场地之一。

C部分

The area in the centre of the Italian town of Lucca, known as the Piazza dell’Anfiteatro, is yet another impressive example of an amphitheatre becoming absorbed into the fabric of the city. The site evolved in a similar way to Arles and was progressively filled with buildings from the Middle Ages until the 19th century, variously used as houses, a salt depot and a prison. But rather than reverting to an arena, it became a market square, designed by Romanticist architect Lorenzo Nottolini. Today, the ruins of the amphitheatre remain embedded in the various shops and residences surrounding the public square.

意大利卢卡镇的中心区域,也被称为Piazza dell’Anfiteatro,是露天竞技场融入城市的另一个例子。该场地的演变与阿尔勒相似,从中世纪到19世纪逐渐被各种建筑物填满。它们被当做房屋,食盐仓库以及监狱。但它并没有被改回竞技场,而是在浪漫主义建筑师Lorenzo Nottolini的设计下成为集市广场。如今,圆形露天竞技场的残留文章来自老烤鸭雅思仍然遗存在广场周围各种商店与民居里。

D部分

There are many similarities between modern stadiums and the ancient amphitheatres intended for games. But some of the flexibility was lost at the beginning of the 20th century, as stadiums were developed using new products such as steel and reinforced concrete, and made use of bright lights for night-time matches.

现代体育场与为比赛而修建的古代圆形露天竞技场之间存在许多相似之处。但由于体育场使用诸如钢筋和水泥这样的新型材料,以及利用灯光为夜晚的比赛照明,其灵活性在20世纪初期的时候有所丧失。

Many such stadiums are situated in suburban areas, designed for sporting use only and surrounded by parking lots. These factors mean that they may not be as accessible to the general public, require more energy to run and contribute to urban heat.

许多这样的体育场位于城市郊区,仅为运动设计,周围都是停车场。这些因素意味着,公众可能不太方便前往,需要更多的能量来运营,并加剧城市的热岛效应。

E部分

But many of today’s most innovative architects see scope for the stadium to help improve the city. Among the current strategies, two seem to be having particular success: the stadium as an urban hub, and as a power plant.

但如今,许多最具创新精神的建筑师在这些体育场身上看到了帮助改善城市的前景。在现有的方案中,有两种似乎特别成功:体育场作为城市中心,以及作为发电站。

There’s a growing trend for stadiums to be equipped with public spaces and services that serve a function beyond sport, such as hotels, retail outlets, conference centres, restaurants and bars, children’s playgrounds and green space. Creating mixed-use developments such as this reinforces compactness and multi-functionality, making more efficient use of land and helping to regenerate urban spaces.

体育场配备运动之外的公共功能和服务,如酒店、零售商店、会议中心、餐厅和酒吧、儿童运动场地、公园等,变得越来越常见。诸如此类混合用途的发展加强了其紧凑性与多功能性,可以更加高效地使用土地,帮助改善城市空间。

This opens the space up to families and a wider cross-section of society, instead of catering only to sportspeople and supporters. There have been many examples of this in the UK: the mixed-use facilities at Wembley and Old Trafford have become a blueprint for many other stadiums in the world.

这一举措将运动场地向家庭和更广泛的社会群体开放,而不是仅用于运动人群和支持者们。英国就有许多这样的例子:温布利和老特拉福德混合用途的设施成为世界上许多其他体育馆的范本。

F部分

The phenomenon of stadiums as power stations has arisen from the idea that energy problems can be overcome by integrating interconnected buildings by means of a smart grid, which is an electricity supply network that uses digital communications technology to detect and react to local changes in usage, without significant energy losses. This article is from laokaoya website. Stadiums are ideal for these purposes, because their canopies have a large surface area for fitting photovoltaic panels and rise high enough (more than 40 metres) to make use of micro wind turbines.

运动场作为发电站的现象源自于以下想法:通过智能电网(即利用数字通信技术对当地电力使用的变化进行侦测和应对,从而避免大量能量损失的电力供应网络)整合互相联系的建筑可以克服能源问题。运动场非常适合达成这些目的,因为它们的顶篷有着巨大的表面积,可以用来安装光电池板,并提升到足够的高度(超过40米)以利用微型风力涡轮机。

Freiburg Mage Solar Stadium in Germany is the first of a new wave of stadiums as power plants, which also includes the Amsterdam Arena and the Kaohsiung Stadium. The latter, inaugurated in 2009, has 8,844 photovoltaic panels producing up to 1.14 GWh of electricity annually. This reduces the annual output of carbon dioxide by 660 tons and supplies up to 80 percent of the surrounding area when the stadium is not in use. This is proof that a stadium can serve its city, and have a decidedly positive impact in terms of reduction of CO2 emissions.

德国的Freiburg Mage太阳能体育场是体育场作为发电站这一新潮流的首个例子。其他案例还包括阿姆斯特丹竞技场和高雄体育馆。后者于2009年首次投入使用,拥有8844块光电池板,每年发电11.4亿瓦时。这每年可以减少660吨的二氧化碳排放,并在体育场不使用时最多为80%的周边地区供电。这证明,运动场可以为其城市服务,并在减少二氧化碳排放方面有着显著的积极影响。

G部分

Sporting arenas have always been central to the life and culture of cities. In every era, the stadium has acquired new value and uses: from military fortress to residential village, public space to theatre and most recently a field for experimentation in advanced engineering. The stadium of today now brings together multiple functions, thus helping cities to create a sustainable future.

运动场所一直都是城市生活和文化的中心。每一个时代,体育场都获得过新的价值和用途:从军事堡垒到居民村庄,到公共空间,到剧院,再到最近前沿工程学的实验场地。如今的体育场结合了多种用途,从而帮助城市创造出可持续的未来。

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