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剑桥雅思17Test2Passage1阅读原文翻译 The Dead Sea Scrolls 死海古卷 剑桥雅 […]


剑桥雅思17Test2Passage1阅读原文翻译 The Dead Sea Scrolls 死海古卷


剑桥雅思17 Test2 Passage1阅读原文翻译



In late 1946 or early 1947, three Bedouin teenagers were tending their goats and sheep near the ancient settlement of Qumran, located on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea in what is now known as the West Bank. One of these young shepherds tossed a rock into an opening on the side of a cliff and was surprised to hear a shattering sound. He and his companions later entered the cave and stumbled across a collection of large clay jars, seven of which contained scrolls with writing on them. The teenagers took the seven scrolls to a nearby town where they were sold for a small sum to a local antiquities dealer. Word of the find spread, and Bedouins and archaeologists eventually unearthed tens of thousands of additional scroll fragments from 10 nearby caves; together they make up between 800 and 900 manuscripts. It soon became clear that this was one of the greatest archaeological discoveries ever made.



The origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which were written around 2,000 years ago between 150 BCE and 70 CE, is still the subject of scholarly debate even today. According to the prevailing theory, they are the work of a population that inhabited the area until Roman troops destroyed the settlement around 70 CE. The area was known as Judea at that time, and the people are thought to have belonged to a group called the Essenes, a devout Jewish sect.



The majority of the texts on the Dead Sea Scrolls are in Hebrew, with some fragments written in an ancient version of its alphabet thought to have fallen out of use in the fifth century BCE. But there are other languages as well. Some scrolls are in Aramaic, the language spoken by many inhabitants of the region from the sixth century BCE to the siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE. In addition, several texts feature translations of the Hebrew Bible into Greek.



The Dead Sea Scrolls include fragments from every book of the Old Testament of the Bible except for the Book of Esther. The only entire book of the Hebrew Bible preserved among the manuscripts from Qumran is Isaiah; this copy, dated to the first century BCE, is considered the earliest biblical manuscript still in existence. This article is from laokaoya website. Along with biblical texts, the scrolls include documents about sectarian regulations and religious writings that do not appear in the Old Testament.



The writing on the Dead Sea Scrolls is mostly in black or occasionally red ink, and the scrolls themselves are nearly all made of either parchment (animal skin) or an early form of paper called ‘papyrus’. The only exception is the scroll numbered 3Q15, which was created out of a combination of copper and tin. Known as the Copper Scroll, this curious document features letters chiselled onto metal – perhaps, as some have theorized, to better withstand the passage of time. One of the most intriguing manuscripts from Qumran, this is a sort of ancient treasure map that lists dozens of gold and silver caches. Using an unconventional vocabulary and odd spelling, it describes 64 underground hiding places that supposedly contain riches buried for safekeeping. None of these hoards have been recovered, possibly because the Romans pillaged Judea during the first century CE. According to various hypotheses, the treasure belonged to local people, or was rescued from the Second Temple before its destruction or never existed to begin with.

死海古卷上的笔迹大多是黑色,偶尔为红色。卷轴本身几乎全部由羊皮纸(动物皮革)或者一种被称为“papyrus”的早期纸张构成。唯一的例外是编号为3Q15的卷轴。它由铜锡混合制作而成。这份神奇的文档被称为“铜卷轴”,其文字被錾刻在金属上 – 或许,正如一些人所设想的那样,这么做是为了抵御时间的流逝。作为库兰姆地区最有趣的手稿之一,它是某种古代的藏宝图,列出了数十处藏宝之地。利用非常规的词汇和古怪的拼写,它描述了64处应该埋藏有宝藏的地方。但尚未有一处被发现。这或许是因为罗马人在公元1世纪洗劫了Judea地区。根据各种假说,这些财宝属于当地民众,或者在第二圣殿毁坏之前被抢救出来,或者一开始就并不存在。


Some of the Dead Sea Scrolls have been on interesting journeys. In 1948, a Syrian Orthodox archbishop known as Mar Samuel acquired four of the original seven scrolls from a Jerusalem shoemaker and part-time antiquity dealer, paying less than $100 for them. He then travelled to the United States and unsuccessfully offered them to a number of universities, including Yale. Finally, in 1954, he placed an advertisement in the business newspaper The Wall Street Journal – under the category ‘Miscellaneous Items for Sale’ – that read: ‘Biblical Manuscripts dating back to at least 200 B.C. are for sale. This would be an ideal gift to an educational or religious institution by an individual or group.’ Fortunately, Israeli archaeologist and statesman Yigael Yadin negotiated their purchase and brought the scrolls back to Jerusalem, where they remain to this day.

一些死海古卷曾经踏上奇妙的旅程。1948年,一位叫作Mar Samuel的叙利亚东正教大主教只用了不到100美元,就从一个耶路撒冷鞋匠兼业余古董商那里买下来最初七个卷轴中的四个。他随后前往美国,试图将它们卖给一些大学(其中也包括耶鲁),但并未成功。文章来自老烤鸭雅思。最终,他于1954年在商务报纸《华尔街日报》上刊登了一则广告,放在杂项物品出售这一类别下。其内容为“出售可以至少追溯到公元前200年的圣经手稿。无论是个人还是团体,这将是赠予教育或宗教机构的理想礼物”。幸运的是,以色列考古学家、政治家Yigael Yadin协商买下了它们,并将这些卷轴带回耶路撒冷。它们至今仍然保存在那里。


In 2017, researchers from the University of Haifa restored and deciphered one of the last untranslated scrolls. The university’s Eshbal Ratson and Jonathan Ben-Dov spent one year reassembling the 60 fragments that make up the scroll. Deciphered from a band of coded text on parchment, the find provides insight into the community of people who wrote it and the 364-day calendar they would have used. The scroll names celebrations that indicate shifts in seasons and details two yearly religious events known from another Dead Sea Scroll. Only one more known scroll remains untranslated.

2017年,海法大学的研究者复原并破译了某个最后一批未翻译的卷轴。来自该学校的Eshbal Ratson和Jonathan Ben-Dov用了一年的时间将60块残片重新组合在一起,拼接成卷轴。羊皮卷上一系列加密文本的破译让我们得以窥视写下这些文字的族群,以及他们所使用的一年364天的历法。卷轴中提到了昭示季节变化的庆典的名字,以及从另一部死海古卷中所得知的一年两次宗教仪式的细节。如今,只剩下一部已知的卷轴还未破译。

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