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剑桥雅思5 Test 4阅读Passage 3原文翻译 the effects of light on pla […]

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剑桥雅思5 Test 4阅读Passage 3原文翻译 the effects of light on plant and animal species 光对动植物的影响

剑桥雅思5第四套题目阅读第三篇文章的主题为光对动植物的影响。文章分为7段,分别介绍了光的重要性,光周期现象以及其对鸟类、植物的影响,并最后简单提到了耐阴类和喜光类植物的差别。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及具体题目的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思5 test 4 passage 3 光对动物的影响

剑桥雅思5 Test 4阅读passage 3答案解析 The effects of light on plant and animal species 光对动植物的影响

剑桥雅思5 Test 4 Passage 3阅读原文翻译

第1自然段

Light is important to organisms for two different reasons. Firstly it is used as a cue for the timing of daily and seasonal rhythms in both plants and animals, and secondly it is used to assist growth in plants.

光线对生物很重要的原因有两个。首先,它被用于动植物每天和季节性活动时间节点的提示,其次,它被用于辅助植物的生长。

第2自然段

Breeding in most organisms occurs during a part of the year only, and so a reliable cue is needed to trigger breeding behaviour. Day length is an excellent cue, because it provides a perfectly predictable pattern of change within the year. In the temperate zone in spring, temperatures fluctuate greatly from day to day, but day length increases steadily by a predictable amount. The seasonal impact of day length on physiological responses is called photoperiodism, and the amount of experimental evidence for this phenomenon is considerable. For example, some species of birds’ breeding can be induced even in midwinter simply by increasing day length artificially (Wolfson 1964). Other examples of photoperiodism occur in plants. A short-day plant flowers when the day is less than a certain critical length. A long-day plant flowers after a certain critical day length is exceeded. In both cases the critical day length differs from species to species. Plants which flower after a period of vegetative growth, regardless of photoperiod, are known as day-neutral plants.

大多数生物的繁殖仅在一年的部分时间内发生,因此需要可靠的线索来触发繁殖行为。日长是一个很好的提示,因为它提供了一年中变化的可预测规律。在春季的温带地区,每天的温度波动很大,但日长每天稳定增加特定的数量。日长对生理反应的季节性影响称为光周期,这种现象的实验证据数量可观。例如,即使是在冬季,也可以通过人工增加日长来诱导某些鸟类的繁殖(Wolfson 1964)。 光周期的其他例子存在于植物中。当白天短于特定的关键长度时,短日照植物就会开花。超过了某个关键的白天长度时,长日照植物就会开花。在这两种情况下,关键的日照长度因物种而异。在不考虑光周期的情况下,经过一段时间生长后开花的植物被称为日中性植物。

第3自然段

Breeding seasons in animals such as birds have evolved to occupy the part of the year in which offspring have the greatest chances of survival. Before the breeding season begins, food reserves must be built up to support the energy cost of reproduction, and to provide for young birds both when they are in the nest and after fiedging. Thus many temperate-zone birds use the increasing day lengths in spring as a cue to begin the nesting cycle, because this is a point when adequate food resources will be assured.

动物(如鸟类)的繁殖季节往往占据一年中后代生存概率最大的一部分时间。在繁殖季节开始之前,必须建立食物储备文章来自老烤鸭雅思以支持繁殖所需的能量消耗,并为幼鸟在巢中和飞翔后提供营养。因此,许多温带地区的鸟类利用春季不断增加的日长作为开始筑巢周期的提示,因为这时候可以确保有充足的食物来源。

第4自然段

The adaptive significance of photoperiodism in plants is also clear. Short-day plants that flower in spring in the temperate zone are adapted to maximising seedling growth during the growing season. Long-day plants are adapted for situations that require fertilization by insects, or a long period of seed ripening. Short-day plants that flower in the autumn in the temperate zone are able to build up food reserves over the growing season and over winter as seeds. Day-neutral plants have an evolutionary advantage when the connection between the favourable period for reproduction and day length is much less certain. For example, desert annuals germinate, flower and seed whenever suitable rainfall occurs, regardless of the day length.

光周期性在植物中的适应性意义也很明显。在温带地区春季开花的短日照植株在生长季节会最大化幼苗的生长。长日照植物适合需要昆虫施肥或种子成熟期长的情况。在温带地区秋季开花的短日照植物能够在生长季节和冬季以种子的形式积累食物储备。当繁殖的有利时期和日长之间的联系不太确定时,日中性植物具有进化优势。例如,无论白天多长,只要有合适的降雨,沙漠的一年生植物就会发芽,开花和播种。

第5自然段

The breeding season of some plants can be delayed to extraordinary lengths. Bamboos are perennial grasses that remain in a vegetative state for many years and then suddenly flower, fruit and die (Evans 1976). Every bamboo of the species Chusquea abietifolia on the island of Jamaica flowered, set seed and died during 1884. The next generation of bamboo flowered and died between 1916 and 1918, which suggests a vegetative cycle of about 31 years. The climatic trigger for this flowering cycle is not yet known, but the adaptive significance is clear. The simultaneous production of masses of bamboo seeds (in some cases lying 12 to 15 centimetres deep on the ground) is more than all the seed-eating animals can cope with at the time, so that some seeds escape being eaten and grow up to form the next generation (Evans 1976).

有些植物的繁殖期可能会延迟很长的时间。竹子是多年生草本植物,会处于生长状态许多年,然后突然开花,结实和枯死(Evans 1976)。1884年,牙买加岛上的每一种Chusquea abietifolia竹子都开花,结实并死亡。下一代竹子在1916年至1918年之间开花并死亡,这表明其营养循环约为31年。尚不清楚该开花周期的气候触发因素,但适应性意义很明显。大量同时存在的竹子种子(在某些情况下位于地面12至15 厘米深处)超出了吃种子动物的处理能力,因此一些种子逃脱了被食用的命运并成长为下一代(Evans 1976)。

第6自然段

The second reason light is important to organisms is that it is essential for photosynthesis. This is the process by which plants use energy from the sun to convert carbon from soil or water into organic material for growth. The rate of photosynthesis in a plant can be measured by calculating the rate of its uptake of carbon. There is a wide range of photosynthetic responses of plants to variations in light intensity. Some plants reach maximal photosynthesis at one-quarter full sunlight, and others, like sugarcane, never reach a maximum, but continue to increase photosynthesis rate as light intensity rises.

光对生物很重要的第二个原因是它对光合作用至关重要。这是植物利用太阳的能量将土壤或水中的碳转化成有机物质进行生长的过程。植物中的光合作用速率可以通过计算其碳吸收速率来测量。植物对光强度变化的光合作用响应范围很广。一些植物在四分之一的日光下达到最大的光合作用,而其他植物(如甘蔗)从未达到过最大值,而是随着光强度的提高,不断提升光合作用速率。

第7自然段

Plants in general can be divided into two groups: shade-tolerant species and shade-intolerant species. This classification is commonly used in forestry and horticulture. Shade-tolerant plants have lower photosynthetic rates and hence have lower growth rates than those of shade-intolerant species. Plant species become adapted to living in .a certain kind of habitat, and in the process evolve a series of characteristics that prevent them from occupying other habitats. Grime (1966) suggests that light may be one of the major components directing these adaptations. For example, eastern hemlock seedlings are shade-tolerant. They can survive in the forest understorey under very low light levels because they have a low photosynthetic rate.

一般而言,植物可分为两类:耐阴种和不耐阴种。这种分类通常用于林业和园艺业。耐阴植物的光合速率较低,因此其生长速度低于不耐阴植物的生长速率。植物物种适应了生活在某一特定的栖息地中,并在这个过程中进化出一系列防止其占用其他栖息地特征。Grime(1966)提出,光可能是指导这些适应过程的主要原因之一。例如,东部铁杉幼苗具有耐阴性。因为其光合作用速率较低,它们可以在非常低的光照水平下在森林伞盖之下生存。

剑桥雅思5 Test 4阅读Passage 1原文翻译 The Impact of wilderness tourism 荒野旅游的影响

剑桥雅思5 Test 4阅读Passage 2原文翻译 Flawed Beauty: the problem with toughened glass 钢化玻璃的问题

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剑桥雅思5 Test 4阅读Passage 3原文翻译 the effects of light on plant and animal species:等您坐沙发呢!

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