剑桥雅思5 Test 1阅读Passage 1原文翻译 约翰逊的字典 Johnson’s Dictionary
剑5 Test 1 Passage 1阅读原文翻译
For the century before Johnson’s Dictionary was published in 1775, there had been concern about the state of the English language. There was no standard way of speaking or writing and no agreement as to the best way of bringing some order to the chaos of English spelling. Dr Johnson provided the solution.
There had, of course, been dictionaries in the past, the first of these being a little book of some 120 pages, compiled by a certain Robert Cawdray, published in 1604 under the title A Table Alphabeticall ‘of hard usual English words’. Like the various dictionaries that came after it during the seventeenth century, Cawdray’s tended to concentrate on ‘scholarly’ words; one function of the dictionary was to enable its student to convey an impression of fine learning.
当然，过去也有字典，其中第一本是约120页的小书，由某位罗伯特·考德瑞（Robert Cawdray）汇编而成，于1604年出版，标题为“ A table Alphabeticall of hard usual English words”。就像十七世纪在它之后出现的各种字典一样，考德瑞的字典倾向于集中在“学者”的单词上。词典的一个功能是使它的学生传达良好学习的印象。
Beyond the practical need to make order out of chaos, the rise of dictionaries is associated with the rise of the English middle class, who were anxious to define and circumscribe the various worlds to conquer- lexical as well as social and commercial. It is highly appropriate that Dr Samuel Johnson, the very model of an eighteenth-century literary man, as famous in his own time as in ours, should have published his Dictionary at the very beginning of the heyday of the middle class.
Johnson was a poet and critic who raised common sense to the heights of genius. His approach to the problems that had worried writers throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries was intensely practical. Up until his time, the task of producing a dictionary on such a large scale had seemed impossible without the establishment of an academy to make decisions about right and wrong usage. Johnson decided he did not need an academy to settle arguments about language; he would write a dictionary himself; and he would do it single-handed. Johnson signed the contract for the Dictionary with the bookseller Robert Dosley at a breakfast held at the Golden Anchor Inn near Holborn Bar on 18 June 1764. He was to be paid ￡1,575 in instalments, and from this he took money to rent 17 Gough Square, in which he set up his ‘dictionary workshop’.
约翰逊是一位诗人和评论家，他将常识提升到天才般的高度。在整个17世纪末和18世纪初期，他处理一直困扰着作家的问题的方法非常实用。直到他的时代，如果不建立一个学术机构文章来自老烤鸭雅思来决定正确与错误的用法，那么大规模制作词典的任务似乎是不可能的。约翰逊认为他不需要一所学院来解决有关语言的争论。他会自己写出字典，而且十分轻松随意。约翰逊于1764 年6 月18日在Holborn Bar附近Golden Anchor Inn举行的早餐会上与书商Robert Dosley签署了字典的合同。他将获得1575 英镑的分期付款。他用这笔钱租了Gough Square 17号，在那里他建立了自己的“词典作坊” 。
James Boswell, his biographer, described the garret where Johnson worked as ‘fitted up like a counting house’ with a long desk running down the middle at which the copying clerks would work standing up. Johnson himself was stationed on a rickety chair at an ‘old crazy deal table’ surrounded by a chaos of borrowed books. He was also helped by six assistants, two of whom died whilst the Dictionary was still in preparation.
The work was immense; filling about eighty large notebooks (and without a library to hand), Johnson wrote the definitions of over 40,000 words, and illustrated their many meanings with some 114,000 quotations drawn from English writing on every subject, from the Elizabethans to his own time. He did not expect to achieve complete originality. Working to a deadline, he had to draw on the best of all previous dictionaries, and to make his work one of heroic synthesis. In fact, it was very much more. Unlike his predecessors, Johnson treated English very practically, as a living language, with many different shades of meaning. He adopted his definitions on the principle of English common law-according to precedent. After its publication, his Dictionary was not seriously rivalled for over a century.
After many vicissitudes the Dictionary was finally published on 15 April 1775. It was instantly recognised as a landmark throughout Europe. ‘This very noble work,’ wrote the leading Italian lexicographer, ‘will be a perpetual monument of Fame to the Author, an Honour to his own Country in particular, and a general Benefit to the republic of Letters throughout Europe.’ The fact that Johnson had taken on the Academies of Europe and matched them (everyone knew that forty French academics had taken forty years to produce the first French national dictionary) was cause for much English celebration.
Johnson had worked for nine years, ‘with little assistance of the learned, and without any patronage of the great; not in the soft obscurities of retirement, or under the shelter of academic bowers, but amidst inconvenience and distraction, in sickness and in sorrow’. For all its faults and eccentricities his two-volume work is a masterpiece and a landmark in his own words, ‘setting the orthography, displaying the analogy, regulating the structures, and ascertaining the significations of English words’. It is the cornerstone of Standard English, an achievement which, in James Boswell’s words, ‘conferred stability on the language of his country’.
约翰逊工作了九年，在这期间“很少有学识渊博的人帮助，也没有大人物的支持。不像退休后悠闲的生活，也不是在学术阴凉的庇护下，而是生活在不便与烦扰，疾病与悲伤中。尽管有着各种缺点和怪异，但他的两卷作品称得上是杰作和里程碑。用他自己的话说“它确立了拼写体系，展示出类比规则，调节结构，并确定英语单词的含义” 。这是标准英语的基石，用詹姆士·博斯韦尔（James Boswell）的话来说，这一成就“为其国家的语言赋予了稳定” 。
The Dictionary, together with his other writing, made Johnson famous and so well esteemed that his friends were able to prevail upon King George Ⅲ to offer him a pension. From then on, he was to become the Johnson of folklore.
《词典》和他的其他著作使约翰逊出名，并受到如此尊敬，以至于他的朋友们能够说服乔治三世国王向他提供退休金。从那时起，他成为Johnson of folklore.