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剑桥雅思5 Test 1阅读Passage 1原文翻译 约翰逊的字典 Johnson’s Dict […]

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剑桥雅思5 Test 1阅读Passage 1原文翻译 约翰逊的字典 Johnson’s Dictionary

剑桥雅思5第一套题目阅读第一篇文章讲述了一本影响深远的英语字典。文章分为9段。一上来先说了约翰逊字典的意义,然后开始按照时间顺序介绍字典的编纂过程和编纂时的各种情况。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读文章对应的答案解析以及其中包含的重点词汇

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思5 test 1 passage 1 约翰逊词典

剑桥雅思5 Test 1阅读Passage 1答案解析 约翰逊字典

剑5 Test 1 Passage 1阅读原文翻译

第一自然段

For the century before Johnson’s Dictionary was published in 1775, there had been concern about the state of the English language. There was no standard way of speaking or writing and no agreement as to the best way of bringing some order to the chaos of English spelling. Dr Johnson provided the solution.

在1775年《约翰逊词典》出版之前的一个世纪,人们一直对英语的状态感到担忧。没有标准的口语或写作方式,在整合混乱英语拼写的最好方法方面也没有共识。约翰逊博士提供了解决方案。

第二自然段

There had, of course, been dictionaries in the past, the first of these being a little book of some 120 pages, compiled by a certain Robert Cawdray, published in 1604 under the title A Table Alphabeticall ‘of hard usual English words’. Like the various dictionaries that came after it during the seventeenth century, Cawdray’s tended to concentrate on ‘scholarly’ words; one function of the dictionary was to enable its student to convey an impression of fine learning.

当然,过去也有字典,其中第一本是约120页的小书,由某位罗伯特·考德瑞(Robert Cawdray)汇编而成,于1604年出版,标题为“ A table Alphabeticall of hard usual English words”。就像十七世纪在它之后出现的各种字典一样,考德瑞的字典倾向于集中在“学者”的单词上。词典的一个功能是使它的学生传达良好学习的印象。

第三自然段

Beyond the practical need to make order out of chaos, the rise of dictionaries is associated with the rise of the English middle class, who were anxious to define and circumscribe the various worlds to conquer- lexical as well as social and commercial. It is highly appropriate that Dr Samuel Johnson, the very model of an eighteenth-century literary man, as famous in his own time as in ours, should have published his Dictionary at the very beginning of the heyday of the middle class.

除了摆脱混乱的实际需要外,词典的兴起与英国中产阶级的兴起有关,他们渴望定义和限制各种领域以方便征服,如词汇,社会和商业。塞缪尔·约翰逊博士(Samuel Johnson)是一位18世纪文学家的楷模,在他自己的时代和我们这个时代一样著名。因此,由他在中产阶级鼎盛时期刚刚开始的时候出版自己的字典十分合适。

第四自然段

Johnson was a poet and critic who raised common sense to the heights of genius. His approach to the problems that had worried writers throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries was intensely practical. Up until his time, the task of producing a dictionary on such a large scale had seemed impossible without the establishment of an academy to make decisions about right and wrong usage. Johnson decided he did not need an academy to settle arguments about language; he would write a dictionary himself; and he would do it single-handed. Johnson signed the contract for the Dictionary with the bookseller Robert Dosley at a breakfast held at the Golden Anchor Inn near Holborn Bar on 18 June 1764. He was to be paid £1,575 in instalments, and from this he took money to rent 17 Gough Square, in which he set up his ‘dictionary workshop’.

约翰逊是一位诗人和评论家,他将常识提升到天才般的高度。在整个17世纪末和18世纪初期,他处理一直困扰着作家的问题的方法非常实用。直到他的时代,如果不建立一个学术机构文章来自老烤鸭雅思来决定正确与错误的用法,那么大规模制作词典的任务似乎是不可能的。约翰逊认为他不需要一所学院来解决有关语言的争论。他会自己写出字典,而且十分轻松随意。约翰逊于1764 年6 月18日在Holborn Bar附近Golden Anchor Inn举行的早餐会上与书商Robert Dosley签署了字典的合同。他将获得1575 英镑的分期付款。他用这笔钱租了Gough Square 17号,在那里他建立了自己的“词典作坊” 。

第五自然段

James Boswell, his biographer, described the garret where Johnson worked as ‘fitted up like a counting house’ with a long desk running down the middle at which the copying clerks would work standing up. Johnson himself was stationed on a rickety chair at an ‘old crazy deal table’ surrounded by a chaos of borrowed books. He was also helped by six assistants, two of whom died whilst the Dictionary was still in preparation.

他的传记作者詹姆斯·博斯韦尔(James Boswell)表示,约翰逊工作的阁楼装修的像会计室一样,中间放着一张长桌子,抄写的人员站在旁边工作。约翰逊本人坐在一张“旧交易桌”旁边摇摇欲坠的椅子上,周围是一堆胡乱堆放的借来的书。他还得到了六名助手的帮助,其中两名在《字典》仍在准备中时丧生。

第六自然段

The work was immense; filling about eighty large notebooks (and without a library to hand), Johnson wrote the definitions of over 40,000 words, and illustrated their many meanings with some 114,000 quotations drawn from English writing on every subject, from the Elizabethans to his own time. He did not expect to achieve complete originality. Working to a deadline, he had to draw on the best of all previous dictionaries, and to make his work one of heroic synthesis. In fact, it was very much more. Unlike his predecessors, Johnson treated English very practically, as a living language, with many different shades of meaning. He adopted his definitions on the principle of English common law-according to precedent. After its publication, his Dictionary was not seriously rivalled for over a century.

这项工作是巨大的。约翰逊填满了大约80个大笔记本(没有可用的图书馆),写下了40,000多个单词的定义,并从伊丽莎白女王时代到他自己时代关于各个主题的英文写作中引述了114,000句话,说明了它们的许多含义。他没想过完全原创。由于最后期限的存在,他不得不借鉴以前所有字典中的精华,并使他的作品成为集大成者。实际上,还远远不止这些。与他的前任不同,约翰逊非常实用地将英语视为一种活着的语言,具有多种不同的含义。他在英国普通法依据先例的原则之上,提出自己的定义。出版后,他的字典在一个多世纪中都没有受到严重的竞争。

第七自然段

After many vicissitudes the Dictionary was finally published on 15 April 1775. It was instantly recognised as a landmark throughout Europe. ‘This very noble work,’ wrote the leading Italian lexicographer, ‘will be a perpetual monument of Fame to the Author, an Honour to his own Country in particular, and a general Benefit to the republic of Letters throughout Europe.’ The fact that Johnson had taken on the Academies of Europe and matched them (everyone knew that forty French academics had taken forty years to produce the first French national dictionary) was cause for much English celebration.

经过多次变动后,该词典终于在1775年4月15日出版。它一开始就被整个欧洲当成一座里程碑。一位著名的意大利字典作者写道:“这项非常高贵的作品将成为作者声誉的永恒丰碑,成为他自己国家的容易,并为整个欧洲的文字带来普遍的好处。“ 约翰逊完全比得上欧洲的学者(每个人都知道四十名法国学者用了四十年时间才完成第一本法语字典),这一事实值得英国庆祝。

第八自然段

Johnson had worked for nine years, ‘with little assistance of the learned, and without any patronage of the great; not in the soft obscurities of retirement, or under the shelter of academic bowers, but amidst inconvenience and distraction, in sickness and in sorrow’. For all its faults and eccentricities his two-volume work is a masterpiece and a landmark in his own words, ‘setting the orthography, displaying the analogy, regulating the structures, and ascertaining the significations of English words’. It is the cornerstone of Standard English, an achievement which, in James Boswell’s words, ‘conferred stability on the language of his country’.

约翰逊工作了九年,在这期间“很少有学识渊博的人帮助,也没有大人物的支持。不像退休后悠闲的生活,也不是在学术阴凉的庇护下,而是生活在不便与烦扰,疾病与悲伤中。尽管有着各种缺点和怪异,但他的两卷作品称得上是杰作和里程碑。用他自己的话说“它确立了拼写体系,展示出类比规则,调节结构,并确定英语单词的含义” 。这是标准英语的基石,用詹姆士·博斯韦尔(James Boswell)的话来说,这一成就“为其国家的语言赋予了稳定” 。

第九自然段

The Dictionary, together with his other writing, made Johnson famous and so well esteemed that his friends were able to prevail upon King George Ⅲ to offer him a pension. From then on, he was to become the Johnson of folklore.

《词典》和他的其他著作使约翰逊出名,并受到如此尊敬,以至于他的朋友们能够说服乔治三世国王向他提供退休金。从那时起,他成为Johnson of folklore.

剑桥雅思5 Test 1阅读Passage 2原文翻译 Nature or Nurture 服从实验

剑桥雅思5 Test 1阅读Passage 3原文翻译 环境问题的真相 The truth about the environment

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