剑桥雅思13Test1Passage2阅读原文翻译 Why being bored is stimulating and useful too
剑桥雅思13 Test1 Passage2阅读原文翻译
We all know how it feels – it’s impossible to keep your mind on anything, time stretches out, and all the things you could do seem equally unlikely to make you feel better. But defining boredom so that it can be studied in the lab has proved difficult. For a start, it can include a lot of other mental states, such as frustration, apathy, depression and indifference. There isn’t even agreement over whether boredom is always a low-energy, flat kind of emotion or whether feeling agitated and restless counts as boredom, too. In his book, Boredom: A Lively History, Peter Toohey at the University of Calgary, Canada, compares it to disgust – an emotion that motivates us to stay away from certain situations. ‘If disgust protects humans from infection, boredom may protect them from “infectious” social situations,’ he suggests.
我们都知道这种感觉——无法集中注意力到任何事情上，时间变得格外迟缓，所有事情都似乎无法让自己感觉好受一些。但要定义厌烦这种情绪，以便它可以在实验室里接受研究，却被证明十分困难。首先，它包含许多其他精神状态，如沮丧、冷漠、压抑和漠不关心。人们甚至对于“厌烦是否总是一种低能量、平淡的情绪状态”，或者“焦躁不安、坐立不宁是否算作厌烦”都存在争议。加拿大卡尔加里大学的Peter Toohey在其著作《厌烦：一段鲜活的历史》中将它与厌恶（一种促使我们脱离特定情景的情绪）进行了比较。 他提出：“如果厌恶保护人类免受感染，那么厌烦可能保护他们远离“感染性”的社会情景。
By asking people about their experiences of boredom, Thomas Goetz and his team at the University of Konstanz in Germany have recently identified five distinct types: indifferent, calibrating, searching, reactant and apathetic. These can be plotted on two axes – one running left to right, which measures low to high arousal, and the other from top to bottom, which measures how positive or negative the feeling is. Intriguingly, Goetz has found that while people experience all kinds of boredom, they tend to specialise in one. Of the five types, the most damaging is ‘reactant’ boredom with its explosive combination of high arousal and negative emotion. The most useful is what Goetz calls ‘indifferent’ boredom: someone isn’t engaged in anything satisfying but still feels relaxed and calm. However, it remains to be seen whether there are any character traits that predict the kind of boredom each of us might be prone to.
Psychologist Sandi Mann at the University of Central Lancashire, UK, goes further. ‘All emotions are there for a reason, including boredom,’ she says. Mann has found that being bored makes us more creative. ‘We’re all afraid of being bored but in actual fact it can lead to all kinds of amazing things,’ she says. In experiments published last year, Mann found that people who had been made to feel bored by copying numbers out of the phone book for 15 minutes came up with more creative ideas about how to use a polystyrene cup than a control group. This article is from Laokaoya website. Mann concluded that a passive, boring activity is best for creativity because it allows the mind to wander. In fact, she goes so far as to suggest that we should seek out more boredom in our lives.