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剑桥雅思13Test4Passage1阅读原文翻译 Cutty Sark: the fastest saili […]

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剑桥雅思13Test4Passage1阅读原文翻译 Cutty Sark: the fastest sailing ship of all time 卡蒂萨克号帆船

剑桥雅思13阅读第四套题目第一篇文章的主题为卡蒂萨克号帆船。文章一共11段,大体可以分为两部分。前2段介绍卡蒂萨克号诞生的背景,后面9段按照时间顺序介绍其名字的来历,制作过程,更换船长,最终被用于公开展览等事件。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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剑桥雅思13Test4Passage1阅读答案解析 Cutty Sark: the fastest sailing ship of all time 卡蒂萨克号

剑桥雅思13 Test4 Passage1阅读原文翻译

第1段

The nineteenth century was a period of great technological development in Britain, and for shipping the major changes were from wind to steam power, and from wood to iron and steel.

英国在19世纪经历了巨大的技术发展。对于航运行业而言,最主要的改变是从利用风能变成了利用蒸汽能,从木材作为原材料转向使用钢铁。

第2段

The fastest commercial sailing vessels of all time were clippers, three-masted ships built to transport goods around the world, although some also took passengers. From the 1840s until 1869, when the Suez Canal opened and steam propulsion was replacing sail, clippers dominated world trade. Although many were built, only one has survived more or less intact: Cutty Sark, now on display in Greenwich, southeast London.

史上最快的商业帆船是快速帆船。这种三桅杆的船舶被建造出来在世界各地运送货物,虽然有时候也搭载乘客。从19世纪40年代到1869年(该年苏伊士运河开通,蒸汽动力取代风帆),快速帆船一直主导着世界贸易。虽然人们建造了许多船只,但只有一艘或多或少完整的保存了下来:卡蒂萨克号。它如今被陈列在伦敦东南部的格林威治。

第3段

Cutty Sark’s unusual name comes from the poem Tam O’Shanter by the Scottish poet Robert Bums. Tam, a farmer, is chased by a witch called Nannie, who is wearing a ‘cutty sark’ – an old Scottish name for a short nightdress. The witch is depicted in Cutty Sark’s figurehead – the carving of a woman typically at the front of old sailing ships. In legend, and in Bums’s poem, witches cannot cross water, so this was a rather strange choice of name for a ship.

卡蒂萨克号这一不同寻常的名字来自于苏格兰诗人Robert Bums的诗歌Tam O’Shanter。Tam是一个农夫,被一名叫做Nannie的女巫追逐。女巫穿着“卡蒂萨克”,一种古老的苏格兰短款睡衣的名字。女巫的形象被用于卡蒂萨克号的船首雕像中-帆船前面通常都使用女性雕像。传说中,以及Bums的诗歌中,女巫无法穿过水域,因此对于船只来说,选择这一名字十分奇怪。

第4段

Cutty Sark was built in Dumbarton, Scotland, in 1869, for a shipping company owned by John Willis. To carry out construction, Willis chose a new shipbuilding firm, Scott & Linton, and ensured that the contract with them put him in a very strong position. In the end, the firm was forced out of business, and the ship was finished by a competitor.

卡蒂萨克号于1869年在苏格兰的登巴顿为一家属于John Willis的航运公司建造。为了完成建造工作,Willis选择了一家新的造船厂,Scott & Linton,并确保在于他们的合同中处于优势地位。最终,这家工厂被迫破产,船只最终由其竞争者完成。

第5段

Willis’s company was active in the tea trade between China and Britain, where speed could bring shipowners both profits and prestige, so Cutty Sark was designed to make the journey more quickly than any other ship. On her maiden voyage, in 1870, she set sail from London, carrying large amounts of goods to China. She returned laden with tea, making the journey back to London in four months. However, Cutty Sark never lived up to the high expectations of her owner, as a result of bad winds and various misfortunes. On one occasion, in 1872, the ship and a rival clipper, Thermopylae, left port in China on the same day. Crossing the Indian Ocean, Cutty Sark gained a lead of over 400 miles, but then her rudder was severely damaged in stormy seas, making her impossible to steer. The ship’s crew had the daunting task of repairing the rudder at sea, and only succeeded at the second attempt. Cutty Sark reached London a week after Thermopylae.

Willis的公司在中国与英国的茶叶贸易中十分活跃。在这种贸易中,速度会给船主带来利润和声望,因此卡蒂萨克号被设计出来就是为了使其航程比其他任何船只都快。她于1870年首航,从英国出发,带着大量的物品前往中国。然后转载茶叶返航,在4个月内回到伦敦。然而,由于糟糕的风向和各种不幸,卡蒂萨克号从来都没有达到过其主人的预期。1872年,有一次卡蒂萨克号和另一艘帆船Thermopylae在同一天离开中国港口。在穿过印度洋的过程中,卡蒂萨克号领先400多英里,但随后她的船舵在波涛汹涌的大海中严重损害,使其无法操控。船员不得不在海上进行修理船舵这一令人气馁的工作,并在第二次尝试中才成功。卡蒂萨克号于Thermopylae一周后到达伦敦。

第6段

Steam ships posed a growing threat to clippers, as their speed and cargo capacity increased. In addition, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, the same year that Cutty Sark was launched, had a serious impact. While steam ships could make use of the quick, direct route between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, the canal was of no use to sailing ships, which needed the much stronger winds of the oceans, and so had to sail a far greater distance. Steam ships reduced the journey time between Britain and China by approximately two months.

随着蒸汽船速度和运载量的提升,它对快速帆船的威胁越来越大。此外,1869年(卡蒂萨克号在同一年下水)苏伊士运河的开通也有很大的影响。蒸汽船可以利用这一地中海和红海之间快速直接的通道,但运河对于帆船来说却毫无用处。帆船需要大海更强的风力,因此不得不航行更远的距离。蒸汽船将英国和中国之间的航程缩短了将近两个月。

第7段

By 1878, tea traders weren’t interested in Cutty Sark, and instead, she took on the much less prestigious work of carrying any cargo between any two ports in the world. In 1880, violence aboard the ship led ultimately to the replacement of the captain with an incompetent drunkard who stole the crew’s wages. He was suspended from service, and a new captain appointed. This marked a turnaround and the beginning of the most successful period in Cutty Sark’s working life, transporting wool from Australia to Britain. One such journey took just under 12 weeks, beating every other ship sailing that year by around a month.

到了1878年,卡蒂萨克号不再受到茶叶贸易者的青睐。相反,她承担起一些不那么重要的工作,在世界任意两个港口间运送各种货物。1880年,船只上发生的暴力冲突最终导致船长被更换。他是一名能力不足,并且偷窃船员工资的醉汉。他被吊销工作,并任命了一位新船长。这意味着转机的到来。卡蒂萨克号开启了服役以来最为成功的一段时期,将羊毛从澳大利亚运送到英国。一次这样的航行只需要不到12周的时间,比当年任何其他船只都要快上大约一个月。

第8段

The ship’s next captain, Richard Woodget, was an excellent navigator, who got the best out of both his ship and his crew. As a sailing ship, Cutty Sark depended on the strong trade winds of the southern hemisphere, and Woodget took her further south than any previous captain, bringing her dangerously close to icebergs off the southern tip of South America. His gamble paid off, though, and the ship was the fastest vessel in the wool trade for ten years.

船只的下一任船长Richard Woodget是一名出色的领航员,将船舶和船员最好的潜力都激发了出来。作为一艘帆船,卡蒂萨克号文章来自老烤鸭雅思依赖南半球强烈的季风,而Woodget则将它带到了比之前任何船长都更南的地方,接近南美洲南段危险的冰川。然而,他的冒险得到了回报,在十年的时间里,卡蒂萨克号是羊毛贸易中最快的船只。

第9段

As competition from steam ships increased in the 1890s, and Cutty Sark approached the end of her life expectancy, she became less profitable. She was sold to a Portuguese firm, which renamed her Ferreira. For the next 25 years, she again carried miscellaneous cargoes around the world.

由于19世纪90年代来自蒸汽船竞争的加剧,再加上卡蒂萨克号接近其寿命的末期,她不再有那么强的盈利能力。她被卖给一家葡萄牙公司,并被重新命名为Ferreira。在接下来的25年里,她再次在世界各地运送各种各样的货物。

第10段

Badly damaged in a gale in 1922, she was put into Falmouth harbour in southwest England, for repairs. Wilfred Dowman, a retired sea captain who owned a training vessel, recognised her and tried to buy her, but without success. She returned to Portugal and was sold to another Portuguese company. Dowman was determined, however, and offered a high price: this was accepted, and the ship returned to Falmouth the following year and had her original name restored.

她在1922年的一场大风中受到严重损坏,被送到英格兰西南部的法尔茅斯港进行修理。Wilfred Dowman,一名拥有一艘训练船只的退休船长认出了她,并尝试买下来,但没有成功。她回到葡萄牙,被卖给了另外一家葡萄牙公司。然而,Dowman决心已定,并给了高价。价格被对方接受。一年后,船只回到法尔茅斯并恢复使用她最初的名字。

第11段

Dowman used Cutty Sark as a training ship, and she continued in this role after his death. When she was no longer required, in 1954, she was transferred to dry dock at Greenwich to go on public display. The ship suffered from fire in 2007, and again, less seriously, in 2014, but now Cutty Sark attracts a quarter of a million visitors a year.

Dowman将Cutty Sark当作训练船使用。而她在他死后依然扮演着这样的角色。但她在1954年不再被需要之后,她被转移到格林威治的干船坞用于公众展览。2007年,这艘船遭遇火灾,并在2014年的时候再次经历了一场不太严重的火灾。如今她每年都吸引25万游客去参观。

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