当前位置: 首页 > 剑桥雅思听力原文 > 正文

剑桥雅思14Test2Section4听力原文与答案 The history of weather forec […]

老烤鸭雅思口语限量答案请联系小助手微信号:laokaoyaielts

剑桥雅思14Test2Section4听力原文与答案 The history of weather forecasting

剑桥雅思14听力第二套题目第四部分的主题为天气预报的历史。录音按照时间顺序介绍了从古代,到希腊,再到中世纪和15-19世界天气预测方面的举措与进步。下面是这段录音对应的原文。

剑桥雅思14 test2 section4雅思听力原文

In this series of lectures about the history of weather forecasting, I’ll start by examining its early history – that’ll be the subject of today’s talk.

OK, so we’ll start by going back thousands of years. Most ancient cultures had weather gods, and weather catastrophes, such as floods, played an important role in many creation myths. Generally, weather was attributed to the whims of the gods, as the wide range of weather gods in various cultures shows. For instance, there’s the Egyptian sun god Ra, and Thor, the Norse god of thunder and lightning. Many ancient civilisations developed rites such as dances (Q31) in order to make the weather gods look kindly on them.

But the weather was of daily importance: observing the skies and drawing the correct conclusions from these observations was really important, in fact their survival (Q32) depended on it. It isn’t known when people first started to observe the skies, but at around 650 BC, the Babylonians produced the first short-range weather forecasts, based on their observations of clouds (Q33) and other phenomena. The Chinese also recognised weather patterns, and by 300 BC, astronomers had developed a calendar which divided the year into 24 festivals (Q34), each associated with a different weather phenomenon.

The ancient Greeks were the first to develop a more scientific approach to explaining the weather. The work of the philosopher and scientist Aristotle, in the fourth century BC, is especially noteworthy, as his ideas held sway for nearly 2,000 years. In 340 BC, he wrote a book in which he attempted to account for the formation of rain, clouds, wind and storms. He also described celestial phenomena such as haloes – that is, bright circles of light around the sun, the moon and bright stars – and comets (Q35). Many of his observations were surprisingly accurate. For example, he believed that heat could cause water to evaporate. But he also jumped to quite a few wrong conclusions, such as that winds are breathed out by the Earth. Errors like this were rectified from the Renaissance onwards.

For nearly 2,000 years, Aristotle’s work was accepted as the chief authority on weather theory. Alongside this, though, in the Middle Ages weather observations were passed on in the form of proverbs, such as ‘Red sky at night, shepherd’s delight; red sky (Q36) in the morning, shepherd’s warning’. Many of these are based on very good observations and are accurate, as contemporary meteorologists have discovered.

For centuries, any attempt to forecast the weather could only be based on personal observations, but in the fifteenth century scientists began to see the need for instruments (Q37). Until then, the only ones available were weather vanes – to determine the wind direction – and early versions of rain gauges. One of the first, invented in the fifteenth century, was a hygrometer, which measured humidity. This was one of many inventions that contributed to the development of weather forecasting.

In 1592, the Italian scientist and inventor Galileo developed the world’s first thermometer (Q38). His student Torricelli later invented the barometer, which allowed people to measure atmospheric pressure. In 1648, the French philosopher Pascal proved that pressure decreases with altitude. This discovery was verified by English astronomer Halley in 1686; and Halley was also the first person to map trade winds.

This increasing ability to measure factors related to weather helped scientists to understand the atmosphere and its processes better, and they started collecting weather observation data systematically. In the eighteenth century, the scientist and politician Benjamin Franklin carried out work on electricity and lightning in particular, but he was also very interested in weather and studied it throughout most of his life. It was Franklin who discovered that storms (Q39) generally travel from west to east.

In addition to new meteorological instruments, other developments contributed to our understanding of the atmosphere. People in different locations began to keep records, and in the mid-nineteenth century, the invention of the telegraph (Q40) made it possible for these records to be collated. This led, by the end of the nineteenth century, to the first weather services.

It was not until the early twentieth century that mathematics and physics became part of meteorology, and we’ll continue from that point next week.

剑桥雅思14 Test2 Section4雅思听力答案

31. dances

32. survival

33. clouds

34. festivals

35. comets

36. sky

37. instruments

38. thermometer

39. storms

40. telegraph

剑桥雅思14Test2Section1听力原文与答案 Total Health Clinic

剑桥雅思14Test2Section2听力原文与答案 Visit to Branley Castle

剑桥雅思14Test2Section3听力原文与答案 Woolly mammoths on St Paul’s Island

老烤鸭雅思听力预测服务请联系小助手微信号:laokaoyaielts” width= 雅思听力必考词汇” width=
本文固定链接: http://www.laokaoya.com/38797.html | 老烤鸭雅思-专注雅思备考

剑桥雅思14Test2Section4听力原文与答案 The history of weather forecasting:等您坐沙发呢!

发表评论

快捷键:Ctrl+Enter
error: Alert: Content is protected !!