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剑桥雅思7Test3阅读Passage1原文翻译 Ant Intelligence 蚂蚁智能 剑桥雅思7阅读第 […]

剑桥雅思7Test3阅读Passage1原文翻译 Ant Intelligence 蚂蚁智能



雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思7 test 3 passage 1 蚂蚁智能

剑桥雅思7Test3阅读Passage1答案解析 Ant Intelligence 蚂蚁智慧

剑桥雅思7 Test 3 Passage 1阅读原文翻译


When we think of intelligent members of the animal kingdom, the creatures that spring immediately to mind are apes and monkeys. But in fact the social lives of some members of the insect kingdom are sufficiently complex to suggest more than a hint of intelligence. Among these, the world of the ant has come in for considerable scrutiny lately, and the idea that ants demonstrate sparks of cognition has certainly not been rejected by those involved in these investigations.



Ants store food, repel attackers and use chemical signals to contact one another in case of attack. Such chemical communication can be compared to the human use of visual and auditory channels (as in religious chants, advertising images and jingles, political slogans and martial music) to arouse and propagate moods and attitudes. The biologist Lewis Thomas wrote, ‘Ants are so much like human beings as to be an embarrassment. They farm fungi, raise aphids* as livestock, launch armies to war, use chemical sprays to alarm and confuse enemies, capture slaves, engage in child labour, exchange information ceaselessly. They do everything but watch television.

‘蚂蚁储存食物,击退袭击者,并在发起攻击时使用化学信号相互联系。这种化学交流可以与人类使用视觉和听觉通道(例如宗教圣歌,广告图像和叮当声,政治口号和军事音乐)进文章来自老烤鸭雅思行比较,以唤起并传播情绪和态度。生物学家路易斯·托马斯(Lewis Thomas)写道:“蚂蚁与人类的相似程度甚至有些尴尬。他们耕种真菌,饲养蚜虫作为牲畜,发动军队进行战争,使用化学喷雾警告和迷惑敌人,俘虏奴隶,使用童工,不断交流信息。他们除了看电视外什么都做。


However, in ants there is no cultural transmission everything must be encoded in the genes – whereas in humans the opposite is true. Only basic instincts are carried in the genes of a newborn baby, other skills being learned from others in the community as the child grows up. It may seem that this cultural continuity gives us a huge advantage over ants. They have never mastered fire nor progressed. Their fungus farming and aphid herding crafts are sophisticated when compared to the agricultural skills of humans five thousand years ago but have been totally overtaken by modern human agribusiness.

“ 然而,蚂蚁不存在文化的传播-所有的一切都被编写在基因之中-而人类则相反。新生婴儿的基因只带有基本的本能,随着孩子的成长,他们会从社区中其他人那里学习其他技能。这种文化上的连续性似乎给了我们比蚂蚁更大的优势。它们从来没有掌握过火,也没有进步。与五千年前人类的农业技能相比,它们的真菌和蚜虫养殖操作十分复杂,但这已经被现代人类农业完全超越。


Or have they? The farming methods of ants are at least sustainable. They do not ruin environments or use enormous amounts of energy. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the crop farming of ants may be more sophisticated and adaptable than was thought.



Ants were farmers fifty million years before humans were. Ants can’t digest the cellulose in leaves – but some fungi can. The ants therefore cultivate these fungi in their nests, bringing them leaves to feed on, and then use them as a source of food. Farmer ants secrete antibiotics to control other fungi that might act as ‘weeds’, and spread waste to fertilise the crop.



It was once thought that the fungus that ants cultivate was a single type that they had propagated, essentially unchanged from the distant past. Not so. Ulrich Mueller of Maryland and his colleagues genetically screened 862 different types of fungi taken from ants’ nests. These turned out to be highly diverse: it seems that ants are continually domesticating new species. Even more impressively, DNA analysis of the fungi suggests that the ants improve or modify the fungi by regularly swapping and sharing strains with neighbouring ant colonies.

曾经有人认为,蚂蚁培育的真菌只有一种类型,与遥远的过去相比基本上没有变化。并非如此。马里兰州的乌尔里希·穆勒(Ulrich Mueller)和他的同事们对蚂蚁巢中取出的862种不同类型的真菌进行了基因检测。结果证明它们是高度多样化的:蚂蚁似乎正在不断驯化新物种。甚至更令人印象深刻的是,真菌的DNA分析表明,蚂蚁通过与相邻蚁群定期交换和共享菌株来改善和修正真菌。


Whereas prehistoric man had no exposure to urban lifestyles – the forcing house of intelligence – the evidence suggests that ants have lived in urban settings for close on a hundred million years, developing and maintaining underground cities of specialised chambers and tunnels.



When we survey Mexico City, Tokyo, Los Angeles, we are amazed at what has been accomplished by humans. Yet Hoelldobler and Wilson’s magnificent work for ant lovers, The Ants, describes a supercolony of the ant Formica yessensis on the Ishikari Coast of Hokkaido. This ‘megalopolis’ was reported to be composed of 360 million workers and a million queens living in 4,500interconnected nests across a territory of 2.7 square kilometres.

当我们调查墨西哥城,东京,洛杉矶时,我们对人类所取得的成就感到惊讶。然而对蚂蚁爱好者来说,Hoelldobler 和Wilson宏伟的作品,The Ants,介绍了Hokkaido Ishikari海岸Formica yessensis蚂蚁的超级巢穴。据报道,这个“大都市” 由3.6亿名工人和100万名女王组成,它们居住在4500个相连的巢穴中,占地2.7平方公里。


Such enduring and intricately meshed levels of technical achievement outstrip by far anything achieved by our distant ancestors. We hail as masterpieces the cave paintings in southern France and elsewhere, dating back some 20,000 years. Ant societies existed in something like their present form more than seventy million years ago. Beside this, prehistoric man looks technologically primitive. Is this then some kind of intelligence, albeit of a different kind?



Research conducted at Oxford, Sussex and Zürich Universities has shown that when desert ants return from a foraging trip, they navigate by integrating bearings and distances, which they continuously update in their heads. They combine the evidence of visual landmarks with a mental library of local directions, all within a framework which is consulted and updated. So ants can learn too.



And in a twelve-year programme of work, Ryabko and Reznikova have found evidence that ants can transmit very complex messages. Scouts who had located food in a maze returned to mobilise their foraging teams. They engaged in contact sessions, at the end of which the scout was removed in order to observe what her team might do. Often the foragers proceeded to the exact spot in the maze where the food had been. Elaborate precautions were taken to prevent the foraging team using odour clues. Discussion now centres on whether the route through the maze is communicated as a ‘left-right’ sequence of turns or as a ‘compass bearing and distance’ message.



During the course of this exhaustive study, Reznikova has grown so attached to her laboratory ants that she feels she knows them as individuals – even without the paint spots used to mark them. It’s no surprise that Edward Wilson, in his essay, ‘In the company of ants’, advises readers who ask what to do with the ants in their kitchen to: ‘Watch where you step. Be careful of little lives.’

在这项详尽的研究过程中,雷兹尼科娃深深地被其实验室的蚂蚁所吸引,以至于她觉得自己认识其中的每一只-即使没有用来标记它们的油漆斑点。爱德华·威尔逊(Edward Wilson)在其论文“在蚂蚁的陪伴下”建议那些询问如何处理厨房中蚂蚁的读者:“注意脚下,小心这些微小的生命”。

剑桥雅思7Test3阅读Passage2原文翻译 Population movements and genetics 人口迁移与遗传学

剑桥雅思7Test3阅读Passage3原文翻译 European forests 欧洲森林保护

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