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剑桥雅思7Test4阅读Passage2原文翻译 Endless Harvest 无尽的收获 剑桥雅思7阅读第 […]

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剑桥雅思7Test4阅读Passage2原文翻译 Endless Harvest 无尽的收获

剑桥雅思7阅读第四套题目第二篇文章的主题为阿拉斯加大马哈鱼无尽的收获。文章一共9段,大体可以分成三部分。第一部分介绍阿拉斯加的渔业情况,第二部分介绍过度捕捞所造成的危害,第三部分介绍所采取的措施和取得的成果。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思7 test 4 passage 2 可持续渔业

剑桥雅思7Test4阅读Passage2答案解析 Endless Harvest 无尽的收获

剑桥雅思7 Test4 Passage2原文翻译

第1段

More than two hundred years ago, Russian explorers and fur hunters landed on the Aleutian Islands, a volcanic archipelago in the North Pacific, and learned of a land mass that lay farther to the north. The islands’ native inhabitants called this land mass Aleyska, the ‘Great Land’; today, we know it as Alaska.

两百多年前,俄罗斯探险家和皮毛猎人踏上北太平洋的火山群岛-阿留申群岛上,并了解到更北边的陆地。这些岛屿的原住民称此地为Aleyska-“伟大土地”。今天,我们将其称为阿拉斯加。

第2段

The forty-ninth state to join the United States of America (in 1959), Alaska is fully one-fifth the size of the mainland 48states combined. It shares, with Canada, the second longest river system in North America and has over half the coastline of the United States. The rivers feed into the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska – cold, nutrient-rich waters which support tens of millions of seabirds, and over 400 species of fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and molluscs. Taking advantage of this rich bounty, Alaska’s commercial fisheries have developed into some of the largest in the world.

阿拉斯加是美国的第49个州(1959年加入美国),是位于美洲大陆48个州加起来面积的五分之一。它与加拿大共享北美第二长的河流系统,并且文章来自老烤鸭雅思拥有一半以上美国的海岸线。河流流入白令海文章来自老烤鸭雅思和阿拉斯加湾。这些营养丰富的寒冷水域支撑着数千万只海鸟以及超过400种鱼类,贝类,甲壳类和软体动物。利用这种丰富的资源,阿拉斯加的商业渔场已发展成为世界上最大的商业渔场之一。

第3段

According to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G), Alaska’s commercial fisheries landed hundreds of thousands of tonnes of shellfish and herring, and well over a million tonnes of groundfish (cod, sole, perch and pollock) in 2000. This article is from Laokaoya website. The true cultural heart and soul of Alaska’s fisheries, however, is salmon. ‘Salmon,’ notes writer Susan Ewing in The Great Alaska Nature Factbook, ‘pump through Alaska like blood through a heart, bringing rhythmic, circulating nourishment to land, animals and people.’ The ‘predictable abundance of salmon allowed some native cultures to flourish,’ and ‘dying spawners* feed bears, eagles, other animals, and ultimately the soil itself.’ All five species of Pacific salmon – chinook, or king; chum, or dog; coho, or silver; sockeye, or red; and pink, or humpback – spawn** in Alaskan waters, and 90% of all Pacific salmon commercially caught in North America are produced there. Indeed, if Alaska was an independent nation, it would be the largest producer of wild salmon in the world. During 2000, commercial catches of Pacific salmon in Alaska exceeded 320,000 tonnes, with an ex-vessel value of over $US260 million.

根据阿拉斯加鱼类与猎物部(ADF&G)的统计,2000年,阿拉斯加的商业渔场捕捞了数十万吨贝类和鲱鱼,以及超过一百万吨的底栖鱼类(鳕鱼,鳎鱼,鲈鱼和狭鳕)。然而,阿拉斯加渔场的真正文化中心是鲑鱼。作家苏珊·尤因(Susan Ewing)在《阿拉斯加大自然概况》中写道,“鲑鱼” 像血液流过心脏一样穿过阿拉斯加,为土地,动物和人类带来有规律的循环营养。“可预测的鲑鱼数量使一些本土文化蓬勃发展”,“即将死亡的产卵者喂养熊,鹰,和其他动物,最后反哺土壤本身。“太平洋的五种鲑鱼-chinook, or king; chum, or dog; coho, or silver; sockeye, or red; and pink, or humpback-全部在阿拉斯加水域产卵。北美商业捕捞的所有太平洋鲑鱼中有90%在那里生产。事实上,如果阿拉斯加是一个独立的国家,它将成为世界上最大的野生鲑鱼生产商。2000年期间,阿拉斯加的太平洋鲑鱼商业捕捞量超过320,000 吨,前船价值超过2.6亿美元。

第4段

Catches have not always been so healthy. Between 1940 and 1959, overfishing led to crashes in salmon populations so severe that in 1953 Alaska was declared a federal disaster area. With the onset of statehood, however, the State of Alaska took over management of its own fisheries, guided by a state constitution which mandates that Alaska’s natural resources be managed on a sustainable basis. At that time, statewide harvests totalled around 25 million salmon. Over the next few decades average catches steadily increased as a result of this policy of sustainable management, until, during the 1990s, annual harvests were well in excess of 100 million, and on several occasions over 200 million fish.

捕捞并不总是那么健康。在1940年至1959年之间,过度捕捞导致鲑鱼种群急剧下降,以至于1953年阿拉斯加被宣布为联邦灾区。然而,随着建州开始,阿拉斯加州接手自己的渔场管理,州宪法规定阿拉斯加的自然资源必须以可持续的方式进行运营。当时,全州的鲑鱼总产量约为2500万。在此后的几十年中,由于采取了这种可持续的管理政策,平均捕捞量稳步增加,直到20世纪90年代,每年的捕捞量远远超过1亿条,有时甚至超过2 亿条。

第5段

The primary reason for such increases is what is known as ‘In-Season Abundance-Based Management’. There are biologists throughout the state constantly monitoring adult fish as they show up to spawn. The biologists sit in streamside counting towers, study sonar, watch from aeroplanes, and talk to fishermen. The salmon season in Alaska is not pre-set. The fishermen know the approximate time of year when they will be allowed to fish, but on any given day, one or more field biologists in a particular area can put a halt to fishing. Even sport fishing can be brought to a halt. It is this management mechanism that has allowed Alaska salmon stocks – and, accordingly, Alaska salmon fisheries – to prosper, even as salmon populations in the rest of the United States are increasingly considered threatened or even endangered.

这种增长的主要原因是所谓的“基于季节的丰度管理” 。整个州都有生物学家不断监测成年鱼产卵的过程。生物学家坐在河边的计数塔上,观察声纳,做飞机查看,并与渔民交谈。阿拉斯加的鲑鱼季节并非预先设定。渔民知道一年中允许捕鱼的大概时间。但在任意一天,特定区域中的一位或多位野外生物学家都可以要求停止捕鱼。甚至运动钓鱼也被制止。正是这种管理机制使得阿拉斯加的鲑鱼种群以及相应的鲑鱼捕捞繁荣增长,即使美国其他地区的鲑鱼种群日益被视为受到威胁,甚至濒临灭绝。

第6段

In 1999, the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)*** commissioned a review of the Alaska salmon fishery. The Council, which was founded in 1996, certifies fisheries that meet high environmental standards, enabling them to use a label that recognises their environmental responsibility. The MSC has established a set of criteria by which commercial fisheries can be judged. Recognising the potential benefits of being identified as environmentally responsible, fisheries approach the Council requesting to undergo the certification process. The MSC then appoints a certification committee, composed of a panel of fisheries experts, which gathers information and opinions from fishermen, biologists, government officials, industry representatives, non-governmental organisations and others.

1999年,海洋管理委员会(MSC)委托对阿拉斯加鲑鱼渔场进行审查。委员会成立于1996年,对符合高环境标准的渔场进行认证,使他们能够使用认可其环境责任的标签。MSC已经建立了一套评估商业渔场的标准。认识到被确认为对环境负责的潜在好处,(阿拉斯加)渔场与理委员会联系,要求进行认证程序。随后,MSC任命一个由渔场专家组成认证委员会,该委员会从渔民,生物学家,政府官员,行业代表,非政府组织和其他组织收集信息和意见。

第7段

Some observers thought the Alaska salmon fisheries would not have any chance of certification when, in the months leading up to MSC’s final decision, salmon runs throughout western Alaska completely collapsed. In the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers, chinook and chum runs were probably the poorest since statehood; subsistence communities throughout the region, who normally have priority over commercial fishing, were devastated.

一些观察家认为,在MSC做出最终决定的前几个月里,阿拉斯加西部的鲑鱼养殖完全崩溃了,因此阿拉斯加鲑鱼渔业不会有任何获得认证的机会在育空河和库斯科克维姆河中,chinook和chum的养殖可能处于建州以来最差的情况。整个区域的维生体系遭到破坏,而它们通常优先于商业渔场。

第8段

The crisis was completely unexpected, but researchers believe it had nothing to do with impacts of fisheries. Rather, they contend, it was almost certainly the result of climatic shifts, prompted in part by cumulative effects of the el niño / la niña phenomenon on Pacific Ocean temperatures, culminating in a harsh winter in which huge numbers of salmon eggs were frozen. It could have meant the end as far as the certification process was concerned. However, the state reacted quickly, closing down all fisheries, even those necessary for subsistence purposes.

这场危机完全出乎意料,但研究人员认为,它与渔场的影响无关。相反,他们认为这几乎可以肯定是气候变化的结果,部分由于厄尔尼诺/拉尼娜现象对太平洋温度的持续影响,导致大量的鲑鱼卵在极度寒冷的冬天被冻结。就认证过程而言,这可能意味着终结。但是,阿拉斯加迅速作出反应,关闭了所有渔场,甚至包括那些维持生计所需的渔场。

第9段

In September 2000, MSC announced that the Alaska salmon fisheries qualified for certification. Seven companies producing Alaska salmon were immediately granted permission to display the MSC logo on their products. Certification is for an initial period of five years, with an annual review to ensure that the fishery is continuing to meet the required standards.

2000年9月,MSC宣布阿拉斯加鲑鱼渔场有资格获得认证。立刻有7家生产阿拉斯加鲑鱼的公司被许可在其产品上展示MSC标志。认证为期五年,每年进行一次审核以确保渔场持续符合所要求的标准。

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