剑桥雅思7Test3阅读Passage3原文翻译 European forests 欧洲森林保护
剑桥雅思7 Test 3 Passage 3阅读原文翻译
Forests are one of the main elements of our natural heritage. The decline of Europe’s forests over the last decade and a half has led to an increasing awareness and understanding of the serious imbalances which threaten them. European countries are becoming increasingly concerned by major threats to European forests, threats which know no frontiers other than those of geography or climate: air pollution, soil deterioration, the increasing number of forest fires and sometimes even the mismanagement of our woodland and forest heritage. There has been a growing awareness of the need for countries to get together to co-ordinate their policies. In December 1990, Strasbourg hosted the first Ministerial Conference on the protection of Europe’s forests. The conference brought together 31 countries from both Western and Eastern Europe. The topics discussed included the co-ordinated study of the destruction of forests, as well as how to combat forest fires and the extension of European research programs on the forest ecosystem. The preparatory work for the conference had been undertaken at two meetings of experts. Their initial task was to decide which of the many forest problems of concern to Europe involved the largest number of countries and might be the subject of joint action. Those confined to particular geographical areas, such as countries bordering the Mediterranean or the Nordic countries therefore had to be discarded. However, this does not mean that in future they will be ignored.
森林是我们自然遗产的主要元素之一。在过去的十五年里，欧洲森林的减少导致人们对威胁它v们的严重不平衡问题的认识和了解不断增加。欧洲国家越来越关注对欧洲森林的重大威胁，这些威胁忽略除地理或气候外的其他边界：空气污染，土壤退化，森林大火不断增加，有时甚至是我们自己对林地和森林遗产的管理不善。目前，人们越来越意识到国家需要团结在一起，共同协调其政策 。1990年12月，斯特拉斯堡主办了首届保护欧洲森林部长级会议。会议聚集了来自西欧和东欧的31个国家。议题包括对森林破坏的共同研究，如何扑灭森林大火，以及扩展欧洲对森林生态系统的研究项目。会议的筹备工作是在两次专家会议上进行的。他们的首要任务是确定欧洲关注的众多森林问题中哪一个涉及最多的国家，并可能成为联合行动的主题。 。因此，仅限于特定地理区域的那些问题，例如与地中海接壤的国家或北欧国家，必须被丢弃。但是，这并不意味着将来它们会被忽略。
As a whole, European countries see forests as performing a triple function: biological, economic and recreational. The first is to act as a ‘green lung’ for our planet; by means of photosynthesis, forests produce oxygen through the transformation of solar energy, thus fulfilling what for humans is the essential role of an immense, non-polluting power plant. At the same time, forests provide raw materials for human activities through their constantly renewed production of wood. Finally, they offer those condemned to spend five days a week in an urban environment an unrivalled area of freedom to unwind and take part in a range of leisure activities, such as hunting, riding and hiking. The economic importance of forests has been understood since the dawn of man – wood was the first fuel. The other aspects have been recognised only for a few centuries but they are becoming more and more important. Hence, there is a real concern throughout Europe about the damage to the forest environment which threatens these three basic roles.
The myth of the ‘natural’ forest has survived, yet there are effectively no remaining ‘primary’ forests in Europe. All European forests are artificial, having been adapted and exploited by man for thousands of years. This means that a forest policy is vital, that it must transcend national frontiers and generations of people, and that it must allow for the inevitable changes that take place in the forests, in needs, and hence in policy. The Strasbourg conference was one of the first events on such a scale to reach this conclusion. A general declaration was made that ‘a central place in any ecologically coherent forest policy must be given to continuity over time and to the possible effects of unforeseen events, to ensure that the full potential of these forests is maintained’.
That general declaration was accompanied by six detailed resolutions to assist national policy-making. The first proposes the extension and systematisation of surveillance sites to monitor forest decline. Forest decline is still poorly understood but leads to the loss of a high proportion of a tree’s needles or leaves. The entire continent and the majority of species are now affected: between 30%and 50% of the tree population. The condition appears to result from the cumulative effect of a number of factors, with atmospheric pollutants the principal culprits. Compounds of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide should be particularly closely watched. However, their effects are probably accentuated by climatic factors, such as drought and hard winters, or soil imbalances such as soil acidification, which damages the roots. The second resolution concentrates on the need to preserve the genetic diversity of European forests. The aim is to reverse the decline in the number of tree species or at least to preserve the ‘genetic material’ of all of them. Although forest fires do not affect all of Europe to the same extent, the amount of damage caused the experts to propose as the third resolution that the Strasbourg conference consider the establishment of a European databank on the subject. All information used in the development of national preventative policies would become generally available. The subject of the fourth resolution discussed by the ministers was mountain forests. In Europe, it is undoubtedly the mountain ecosystem which has changed most rapidly and is most at risk. A thinly scattered permanent population and development of leisure activities, particularly skiing, have resulted in significant long-term changes to the local ecosystems. Proposed developments include a preferential research program on mountain forests. The fifth resolution relaunched the European research network on the physiology of trees, called Eurosilva. Eurosilva should support joint European research on tree diseases and their physiological and biochemical aspects. Each country concerned could increase the number of scholarships and other financial support for doctoral theses and research projects in this area. Finally, the conference established the framework for a European research network on forest ecosystems. This would also involve harmonising activities in individual countries as well as identifying a number of priority research topics relating to the protection of forests. The Strasbourg conference’s main concern was to provide for the future. This was the initial motivation, one now shared by all 31 participants representing 31European countries. Their final text commits them to on-going discussion between government representatives with responsibility for forests.
伴随这一声明的是六个详细的决议，以协助国家政策的制定。第一项提议是扩大监测点并使其系统化，以监测森林的退化。人们对森林退化仍然知之甚少，但是它却导致大量的树针或树叶损失。现在整个大陆和大多数物种都受到了影响：占树木种群的30％至50％。这种情况似乎是由于许多因素的累积影响所致，其中大气污染物是主要罪魁祸首。应特别注意氮和二氧化硫的化合物。然而，气候因素（例如干旱和严冬）或土壤失衡（例如土壤酸化）会破坏根系，从而加剧其影响。第二项决议集中于维护欧洲森林基因多样性的需要。目的是扭转树种数量的下降，或至少保留所有树种的“遗传材料” 。尽管森林大火不会对整个欧洲产生相同程度的影响，但造成的破坏程度却使专家们提出了第三项决议：斯特拉斯堡会议考虑建立有关该问题的欧洲数据库。制定国家预防政策所使用的所有信息将普遍公开。部长们讨论的第四项决议的主题是山区森林。在欧洲，山区生态系统无疑变化最快，风险最大。零散的永久人口居住点和休闲活动的发展，尤其是滑雪的发展，导致当地生态系统重大长期的变化。拟议的改善包括一项关于山区森林的有限研究计划。第五项决议重新启动了被称为Eurosilva的欧洲树木生理学研究网络 。Eurosilva 应该支持欧洲在树木病害及其生理和生化方面的联合研究。每个相关国家都可以增加该领域的博士学位论文和研究项目的奖学金以及其他经济支持的数量。最后，会议为欧洲森林生态系统研究网络建立了框架。这将涉及协调各个国家的活动，并确定一些与森林保护有关的优先研究主题。斯特拉斯堡会议的主要关切是为未来做好准备。这是最初的动机，现在由代表31个欧洲国家的31位参与者共同拥有。他们的文本使其参与到负责森林相关问题的政府代表之间的持续讨论中。