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剑桥雅思7Test1阅读Passage2原文翻译 making every drop count 高效利用水资 […]


剑桥雅思7Test1阅读Passage2原文翻译 making every drop count 高效利用水资源



雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思7 test 1 passage 2 水资源利用

剑桥雅思7Test1阅读Passage2答案解析 making every drop count 水资源利用

剑桥雅思7 Test 1 Passage 2阅读原文翻译


The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources. As towns gradually expanded, water was brought from increasingly remote sources, leading to sophisticated engineering efforts such as dams and aqueducts. At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.



During the industrial revolution and population explosion of the 19th and 20th centuries, the demand for water rose dramatically. Unprecedented construction of tens of thousands of monumental engineering projects designed to control floods, protect clean water supplies, and provide water for irrigation and hydropower brought great benefits to hundreds of millions of people. Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40 % of the world’s food. Nearly one fifth of all the electricity generated worldwide is produced by turbines spun by the power of falling water.



Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water some two and a half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve these problems.



The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardising human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes – often with little warning or compensation – to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20 % of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers* are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in parts of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.



At the outset of the new millennium, however, the way resource planners think about water is beginning to change. The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as top priority – ensuring ‘some for all,’ instead of ‘more for some’. Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities, which is increasingly considered the option of last, not first, resort. This shift in philosophy has not been universally accepted, and it comes with strong opposition from some established water organisations. Nevertheless, it may be the only way to address successfully the pressing problems of providing everyone with clean water to drink, adequate water to grow food and a life free from preventable water-related illness.

然而,在新千年开始之际,资源规划者关于水的想法正在发生改变。重点逐渐转移到将满足基本的人类和环境需求作为头等大事-确保“全民所有”,而不是“一些人更多” 。现在,一些水务专家要求以更智能的方式使用现有基础设施,而不是建造新设施。新设施越来越被认为是最后的选择,而不是第一选择。这种哲学上的转变尚未得到普遍接受,并且受到一些知名水务组织的强烈反对。然而,这可能是成功解决紧迫问题的唯一方法,以便为每个人提供清洁的饮用水,充足的水来种植食物以及远离可预防的水资源相关疾病的生活。


Fortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted. As a result, the pressure to build new water infrastructures has diminished over the past two decades. Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lakes has slowed. And in a few parts of the world, demand has actually fallen.



What explains this remarkable turn of events? Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use. Throughout the first three-quarters of the 20th century, the quantity of freshwater consumed per person doubled on average; in the USA, water withdrawals increased tenfold while the population quadrupled. But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry. In 1965, for instance, Japan used approximately 13 million gallons* of water to produce $1 million of commercial output; by 1989 this had dropped to 3.5 million gallons (even accounting for inflation) – almost a quadrupling of water productivity. In the USA, water withdrawals have fallen by more than 20 % from their peak in 1980.

两个因素可以解释这种非同寻常的事件变化:人们已经弄清楚如何更有效率地利用水,而社区也在重新考虑其用水的优先级。在20世纪的前四分之三,人均淡水消耗量平均增加了一倍。在美国,取水量增加了十倍,而人口增加了四倍但是自1980年以来,由于一系列有助于节省家庭和工业用水的新技术,人均用水量实际上有所减少。例如,在1965年,日本使用大约1300万加仑的水来换取100万美元的商业产出。到了1989年,该数字下降到350万加仑(甚至计入通货膨胀)- 水的生产效率几乎提升了四倍。在美国,取水量比1980年的峰值下降了20%以上。


On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to a smaller budget.


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