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剑桥雅思7Test2阅读Passage1原文翻译 Why pagodas don’t fall d […]

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剑桥雅思7Test2阅读Passage1原文翻译 Why pagodas don’t fall down 日本高塔为何不倒

剑桥雅思7阅读第二套题目第一篇文章的主题为探讨日本高塔为何屹立不倒的原因。文章共有9段,大体分为三部分。第一部分介绍日本高塔不倒的事实及其不凡之处,第二部分介绍中国高塔和日本高塔的区别,第三部分介绍其不倒的具体原因。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及具体题目的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思7 test 2 passage 1 日本高塔

剑桥雅思7Test2阅读Passage1答案解析 Why pagodas don’t fall down 日本高塔为何屹立不倒

剑桥雅思7 Test 2 Passage 1阅读原文翻译

第1自然段

In a land swept by typhoons and shaken by earthquakes, how have Japan’s tallest and seemingly flimsiest old buildings – 500 or so wooden pagodas – remained standing for centuries? Records show that only two have collapsed during the past 1400 years. Those that have disappeared were destroyed by fire as a result of lightning or civil war. The disastrous Hanshin earthquake in 1995 killed 6,400 people, toppled elevated highways, flattened office blocks and devastated the port area of Kobe. Yet it left the magnificent five-storey pagoda at the Toji temple in nearby Kyoto unscathed, though it levelled a number of buildings in the neighbourhood.

在台风席卷,地震频繁的土地上,日本最高、看似最脆弱的老建筑-500座左右的木制宝塔-如何屹立了几个世纪?记录显示在过去的1400年中只有两座倒塌。大多数都是被闪电或内战导致的大火摧毁。在1995年灾难性的阪神地震中遇难6400人,高架公路倒塌,办公块被夷为平地和神户港区被破坏。尽管它摧毁了附近的许多建筑物,但却毫发无损地保留了京都东寺附近的五层宝塔。

第2自然段

Japanese scholars have been mystified for ages about why these tall, slender buildings are so stable. It was only thirty years ago that the building industry felt confident enough to erect office blocks of steel and reinforced concrete that had more than a dozen floors. With its special shock absorbers to dampen the effect of sudden sideways movements from an earthquake, the thirty-six-storey Kasumigaseki building in central Tokyo – Japan’s first skyscraper – was considered a masterpiece of modern engineering when it was built in 1968.

对于这些高大而纤细的建筑物为何如此稳定,古往今来日本学者一直感到困惑。仅仅在30年前,建筑行业才感到足够自信,可以竖立有十多个楼层的钢筋文章来自老烤鸭雅思混凝土办公楼。凭借其特殊的减震器来减轻地震中突然侧向运动的影响,位于东京市中心的这栋三十六层的霞关大厦-日本的第一座摩天大楼-于1968年建成时被认为是现代工程学的杰作。

第3自然段

Yet in 826, with only pegs and wedges to keep his wooden structure upright, the master builder Kobodaishi had no hesitation in sending his majestic Toji pagoda soaring fifty-five metres into the sky – nearly half as high as the Kasumigaseki skyscraper built some eleven centuries later. Clearly, Japanese carpenters of the day knew a few tricks about allowing a building to sway and settle itself rather than fight nature’s forces. But what sort of tricks?

然而,在826年,仅用钉子和楔子将木结构保持直立,建筑工匠大师Kobodaishi毫不犹豫地将雄伟的Toji塔修建成高耸入云的55米-几乎是十一世纪后霞关大厦高度的一半。显然,那时的日本木匠知道一些技巧,可以使建筑物摇摆并自行安顿下来,而不是与自然力量作斗争。但是究竟是什么样的技巧呢?

第4自然段

The multi-storey pagoda came to Japan from China in the sixth century. As in China, they were first introduced with Buddhism and were attached to important temples. The Chinese built their pagodas in brick or stone, with inner staircases, and used them in later centuries mainly as watchtowers. When the pagoda reached Japan, however, its architecture was freely adapted to local conditions – they were built less high, typically five rather than nine storeys, made mainly of wood and the staircase was dispensed with because the Japanese pagoda did not have any practical use but became more of an art object. Because of the typhoons that batter Japan in the summer, Japanese builders learned to extend the eaves of buildings further beyond the walls. This prevents rainwater gushing down the walls. Pagodas in China and Korea have nothing like the overhang that is found on pagodas in Japan.

多层宝塔于六世纪从中国传入日本。像在中国一样,它们最初是由佛教引入的,并作为重要寺庙的附属物。中国人用砖或石头建造宝塔,内部带有楼梯,并在以后的几个世纪中主要将其用作瞭望塔。但是,当宝塔到达日本后,其结构适应当地条件-它们的建造高度较低,通常只有五层而不是九层,主要由木头制成,并且由于日本宝塔没有任何实际用途并且更多的被当作艺术品,因此取消了楼梯。由于夏季遭受台风袭击,日本建筑工人将建筑物的屋檐延伸到墙外。这样可以防止雨水冲击墙壁。中国和韩国的宝塔没有日本宝塔上的这种突出物。

第5自然段

The roof of a Japanese temple building can be made to overhang the sides of the structure by fifty per cent or more of the building’s overall width. For the same reason, the builders of Japanese pagodas seem to have further increased their weight by choosing to cover these extended eaves not with the porcelain tiles of many Chinese pagodas but with much heavier earthenware tiles.

日本寺庙建筑的屋顶可以超出建筑物整体宽度的50%或更多。出于同样的原因,日本宝塔的建造者似乎通过选择重的多的陶器砖而非像中国那样的瓷砖来覆盖延伸的屋檐,以进一步增加宝塔的重量。

第6自然段

But this does not totally explain the great resilience of Japanese pagodas. Is the answer that, like a tall pine tree, the Japanese pagoda – with its massive trunk-like central pillar known as shinbashira – simply flexes and sways during a typhoon or earthquake? For centuries, many thought so. But the answer is not so simple because the startling thing is that the shinbashira actually carries no load at all. In fact, in some pagoda designs, it does not even rest on the ground, but is suspended from the top of the pagoda – hanging loosely down through the middle of the building. The weight of the building is supported entirely by twelve outer and four inner columns.

但这并不能完全解释日本宝塔的强大韧性。答案是像下面这样吗?就像一棵高大的松树一样,日本宝塔(其巨大的树干状中央支柱被称为shinbashira)在台风或地震中只是弯曲和摇摆?几个世纪以来,许多人都这样认为。但是答案并非如此简单,因为令人吃惊的是shinbashira实际上根本没有承重。实际上,在某些宝塔设计中,它甚至没有置于地面,而是从宝塔的顶部悬挂下来-松散地挂在建筑物中间。建筑物的重量完全由十二个外柱和四个内柱支撑。

第7自然段

And what is the role of the shinbashira, the central pillar? The best way to understand the shinbashira’s role is to watch a video made by Shuzo Ishida, a structural engineer at Kyoto Institute of Technology. Mr Ishida, known to his students as ‘Professor Pagoda’ because of his passion to understand the pagoda, has built a series of models and tested them on a ‘shake- table’ in his laboratory. In short, the shinbashira was acting like an enormous stationary pendulum. The ancient craftsmen, apparently without the assistance of very advanced mathematics, seemed to grasp the principles that were, more than a thousand years later, applied in the construction of Japan’s first skyscraper. What those early craftsmen had found by trial and error was that under pressure a pagoda’s loose stack of floors could be made to slither to and fro independent of one another. Viewed from the side, the pagoda seemed to be doing a snake dance – with each consecutive floor moving in the opposite direction to its neighbours above and below. The shinbashira, running up through a hole in the centre of the building, constrained individual storeys from moving too far because, after moving a certain distance, they banged into it, transmitting energy away along the column.

那么,核心支柱shinbashira的作用是什么?了解shinbashira作用的最好方法是观看京都工业大学结构工程师石田修三制作的视频。石田先生因热衷于研究宝塔而被学生称为“宝塔教授”,他已经建立了一系列模型并在实验室的“振动台”上对其进行了测试。简而言之,shinbashira像一个巨大的静止钟摆。古代工匠显然没有先进数学方法的辅助,但似乎掌握了一千多年后在日本建造第一座摩天大楼时所应用的原理。这些早期的工匠通过反复试验发现,宝塔松散楼层在压力下可以相互独立地来回滑动。从侧面看,宝塔似乎在做蛇舞-相邻的楼层按照与上下楼层相反的方向移动。穿过建筑物中心孔洞的shinbashira限制了各个楼层的移动幅度,因为在其移动一定距离后,就会撞到柱子上,沿着圆柱将能量传递出去。

第8自然段

Another strange feature of the Japanese pagoda is that, because the building tapers, with each successive floor plan being smaller than the one below, none of the vertical pillars that carry the weight of the building is connected to its corresponding pillar above. In other words, a five- storey pagoda contains not even one pillar that travels right up through the building to carry the structural loads from the top to the bottom. More surprising is the fact that the individual storeys of a Japanese pagoda, unlike their counterparts elsewhere, are not actually connected to each other. They are simply stacked one on top of another like a pile of hats. Interestingly, such a design would not be permitted under current Japanese building regulations.

日本宝塔的另一个奇怪特征是,由于建筑物逐渐变细,每个连续的楼层的面积都小于下面的楼层,因此没有任何承载建筑物重量的垂直支柱与上方的相应支柱相连。换句话说,一座五层楼的宝塔甚至不包含一根贯穿整个建筑物的柱子,以将结构荷载从顶部传递到底部。更令人惊讶的是,与其他地方的宝塔不同,日本塔的各个楼层实际上并未相互连接。它们就像一堆帽子一样,一个接一个地堆叠在一起。有趣的是,根据当前的日本建筑法规,这种设计是不允许的。

第9自然段

And the extra-wide eaves? Think of them as a tightrope walker’s balancing pole. The bigger the mass at each end of the pole, the easier it is for the tightrope walker to maintain his or her balance. The same holds true for a pagoda. ‘With the eaves extending out on all sides like balancing poles,’ says Mr Ishida, ‘the building responds to even the most powerful jolt of an earthquake with a graceful swaying, never an abrupt shaking.’ Here again, Japanese master builders of a thousand years ago anticipated concepts of modern structural engineering.

超宽屋檐呢?将它们想象成走钢丝的人的平衡杆。杆子两端的质量越大,走钢丝的人就越容易保持平衡。宝塔也是如此。石田先生说:“屋檐像平衡杆一样向四面八方延伸,即使是地震中最强烈的颠簸,建筑物也可以平稳地摇摆,而不会突然晃动”。又一次的,一千年前的日本建筑大师们预测到了现代结构工程的概念。

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