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剑桥雅思4 Test 3阅读Passage 2原文翻译 火山:惊天动地的消息 volcanoes &#8211 […]

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剑桥雅思4 Test 3阅读Passage 2原文翻译 火山:惊天动地的消息 volcanoes – earth-shattering news

剑桥雅思4第三套题目阅读第二篇文章主要介绍了与火山爆发相关的内容。文章分为四大部分,每一部分又分为若干小段,分别介绍火山爆发对地球的影响,原因,种类,不可预测性等。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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剑桥雅思4 Test 3阅读Passage 2答案解析 火山爆发

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剑4 Test 3 Passage 2阅读原文翻译

When Mount Pinatubo suddenly erupted on 9 June 1991, the power of volcanoes past and present again hit the headlines

皮纳图博火山在1991年6月9日突然爆发,火山过去和现在的力量再一次登上头条。

A部分

Volcanoes are the ultimate earth-moving machinery. A violent eruption can blow the top few kilometres off a mountain, scatter fine ash practically all over the globe and hurl rock fragments into the stratosphere to darken the skies a continent away.

火山是终极的土方机械。一次猛烈的喷发会将山顶的几公里吹走,将灰烬散布到几乎全球各地,并将岩石碎片扔到平流层中,使整个大陆的天空变暗。

But the classic eruption – cone-shaped mountain, big bang, mushroom cloud and surges of molten lava – is only a tiny part of a global story. Vulcanism, the name given to volcanic processes, really has shaped the world. Eruptions have rifted continents, raised mountain chains, constructed islands and shaped the topography of the earth. The entire ocean floor has a basement of volcanic basalt.

但是,经典的喷发-圆锥形的山脉,大爆炸,蘑菇云和熔岩涌动-只是全球故事的一小部分。Vulcanism,火山运动文章来自老烤鸭雅思过程的名字,确实改变了世界。火山喷发撕裂大陆,抬起山脉,建造岛屿并塑造了地球的地形。整个海底都是由火山玄武岩构成的地下室。

Volcanoes have not only made the continents, they are also thought to have made the world’s first stable atmosphere and provided all the water for the oceans, rivers and ice-caps. There are now about 600 active volcanoes. Every year they add two or three cubic kilometres of rock to the continents. Imagine a similar number of volcanoes smoking away for the last 3,500 million years. That is enough rock to explain the continental crust.

火山不仅造就了大洲,而且也被认为造就了世界上第一个稳定的大气层,并提供了海洋,河流和冰盖的全部水分。现在大约有600座活火山。他们每年都为各块大陆增加两三立方千米的岩石。想象一下,在过去35亿年中,有类似数量的火​​山在冒烟。它们产生的岩石足以解释地壳的形成。

What comes out of volcanic craters is mostly gas. More than 90% of this gas is water vapour from the deep earth: enough to explain, over 3,500 million years, the water in the oceans. The rest of the gas is nitrogen, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, methane, ammonia and hydrogen. The quantity of these gases, again multiplied over 3,500 million years, is enough to explain the mass of the world’s atmosphere. We are alive because volcanoes provided the soil, air and water we need.

从火山口出来的大部分是气体。这些气体的90%以上是来自地底深处的水蒸气:在35亿年的时间里,它们足以解释海洋中的水分的来源。其余的气体是氮气,二氧化碳,二氧化硫,甲烷,氨气和氢气。这些气体的数量再乘以35亿年,足以解释世界大气的数量。我们活着是因为火山为我们提供了所需的土壤,空气和水。

B部分

Geologists consider the earth as having a molten core, surrounded by a semi-molten mantle and a brittle, outer skin. It helps to think of a soft-boiled egg with a runny yolk, a firm but squishy white and a hard shell. If the shell is even slightly cracked during boiling, the white material bubbles out and sets like a tiny mountain chain over the crack – like an archipelago of volcanic islands such as the Hawaiian Islands. But the earth is so much bigger and the mantle below is so much hotter.

地质学家认为地球具有熔融的核,被半熔融的地幔和脆的外皮包围。我们可以想象一个煮熟的鸡蛋,它带有流动的蛋黄,坚固但多汁的蛋白和坚硬的外壳。如果壳在沸腾过程中甚至略微破裂,白色物质就会冒出气泡,像一条细小的山链在裂缝上凝结-像夏威夷群岛等火山岛群岛。但是地球要大的多,而下面的地幔也要热的多。

Even, though the mantle rocks are kept solid by overlying pressure, they can still slowly ‘flow’ like thick treacle. The flow, thought to be in the form of convection currents, is powerful enough to fracture the ‘eggshell’ of the crust into plates, and keep them bumping and grinding against each other, or even overlapping, at the rate of a few centimetres a year. These fracture zones, where the collisions occur, are where earthquakes happen. And, very often, volcanoes.

即使地幔岩石通过施加压力保持固结,它们仍可以像稠密的糖浆一样缓慢地“流动”。这种流动被认为是某种形式的对流,其力量足以将地壳的“蛋壳”破裂成板状,并使它们以每年几厘米的速度相互碰撞和摩擦,甚至重叠。发生碰撞的这些断裂带就是地震发生的地方。还有很多时候是火山。

C部分

These zones are lines of weakness, or hot spots. Every eruption is different, but put at its simplest, where there are weaknesses, rocks deep in the mantle, heated to 1,350℃, will start to expand and rise. As they do so, the pressure drops, and they expand and become liquid and rise more swiftly.

这些区域是薄弱地带或热点。每种喷发都不尽相同,但最简单的说法就是在存在弱点的地方,地幔深处的岩石加热到1,350℃ 就会开始膨胀和上升。当它们这样做时,压力下降,它们膨胀并变成液体,迅速上升。

Sometimes it is slow: vast bubbles of magma – molten rock from the mantle-inch towards the surface, cooling slowly, to show through as granite extrusions (as on Skye, or the Great Whin Sill, the lava dyke squeezed out like toothpaste that carries part of Hadrian’s Wall in northern England). Sometimes – as in Northern Ireland, Wales and the Karoo in South Africa – the magma rose faster, and then flowed out horizontally on to the surface in vast thick sheets. In the Deccan plateau in western India, there are more than two million cubic kilometres of lava, some of it 2,400 metres thick, formed over 500,000 years of slurping eruption.

有时很慢:巨大的岩浆气泡-地幔中融化的岩石-一寸寸向表面移动,缓慢冷却,以花岗岩挤压的形式显现出来(例如在Skye或Great Whill Sill上,熔岩堤像牙膏一样挤出来,构成英格兰北部哈德良长城的一部分)。有时-如北爱尔兰,威尔士和南非的Karoo-岩浆上升得更快,然后像巨大厚实的被单一样水平地流到地表。在印度西部德干高原,有超过两百万立方千米的熔岩,其中一些有2,400米的厚,形成于50万年中的间断喷发。

Sometimes the magma moves very swiftly indeed. It does not have time to cool as it surges upwards. The gases trapped inside the boiling rock expand suddenly, the lava glows with heat, it begins to froth, and it explodes with tremendous force. Then the slightly cooler lava following it begins to flow over the lip of the crater. It happens on Mars, it happened on the moon, it even happens on some of the moons of Jupiter and Uranus. By studying the evidence, vulcanologists can read the force of the great blasts of the past. Is the pumice light and full of holes? The explosion was tremendous. Are the rocks heavy, with huge crystalline basalt shapes, like the Giant’s Causeway in Northern Ireland? It was a slow, gentle eruption.

有时候岩浆确实非常迅速地移动。在它向上的过程中没有时间冷却。被困在沸腾的岩石中的气体突然膨胀,熔岩因热量发光,开始起泡,并以巨大的力量爆发开来。然后,稍凉的熔岩开始在火山口的边缘流动。它发生在火星上,发生在月球上,甚至发生在木星和天王星的某些卫星上。通过研究证据,火山学家可以了解过去巨大爆炸的力量。如果浮石重量轻且布满空洞,那么爆炸是巨大的。如果岩石像北爱尔兰的巨人之路一样重,具有巨大的结晶玄武岩形状,那么那是一个缓慢而温和的喷发。

The biggest eruptions are deep on the mid-ocean floor, where new lava is forcing the continents apart and widening the Atlantic by perhaps five centimetres a year. Look at maps of volcanoes, earthquakes and island chains like the Philippines and Japan, and you can see the rough outlines of what are called tectonic plates – the plates which make up the earth’s crust and mantle. The most dramatic of these is the Pacific ‘ring of fire’ where there have been the most violent explosions – Mount Pinatubo near Manila, Mount St Helen’s in the Rockies and El Chichón in Mexico about a decade ago, not to mention world-shaking blasts like Krakatoa in the Sunda Straits in 1883.

最大的喷发发生在大洋中层深处,那里新的熔岩正迫使这些大陆分开,并使大西洋每年扩大五厘米。看一眼地图上诸如菲律宾和日本等地的火山,地震和岛屿链,你就会看到所谓的构造板块的粗略轮廓,这些板块构成了地壳和地幔。其中最引人注目的是太平洋上的“火环”,那里发生了最猛烈的爆炸-大约十年前,马尼拉附近的皮纳图博火山,落基山脉的圣海伦火山和墨西哥的埃尔奇琴,更不用说1883年Sunda海峡中Krakatoa震撼世界的喷发

D部分

But volcanoes are not very predictable. That is because geological time is not like human time. During quiet periods, volcanoes cap themselves with their own lava by forming a powerful cone from the molten rocks slopping over the rim of the crater; later the lava cools slowly into a huge, hard, stable plug which blocks any further eruption until the pressure below becomes irresistible. In the case of Mount Pinatubo, this took 600 years.

但是火山不是很好预测。那是因为地质时间不像人类的时间。在安静的时候,火山从倾斜的火山口边缘形成的熔融岩石构成一个强大的圆锥体,从而用自己的熔岩覆盖自己。之后,熔岩缓慢冷却成巨大,坚硬,稳定的塞子,阻止进一步的喷发,直到无法承受的压力为止。就皮纳图博火山而言,这花了600年。

Then, sometimes, with only a small warning, the mountain blows its top. It did this at Mont Pelée in Martinique at 7.49 a.m. on 8 May, 1902. Of a town of 28,000, only two people survived. In 1815, a sudden blast removed the top 1,280 metres of Mount Tambora in Indonesia. The eruption was so fierce that dust thrown into the stratosphere darkened the skies, cancelling the following summer in Europe and North America. Thousands starved as the harvests failed, after snow in June and frosts in August. Volcanoes are potentially world news, especially the quiet ones.

然后,有时候,只有很小的警告,这座山就炸开了自己的顶部。它在1902年5月8日早上7.49就在马提尼克的MontPelée这么做了。在28,000人的城镇中,只有两个人幸存。1815年印度尼西亚摩坦博拉火山一场突如其来的喷发移除了山顶1280米的高度。火山喷发是如此之猛,以至于尘埃进入平流层使天空变黑,从而消除了次年欧洲和北美的夏季。在六月的降雪和八月的霜冻之后,由于收成失败,上千人饿死。火山可能是世界新闻,尤其是安静的新闻。

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