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剑桥雅思4 Test 1阅读原文翻译 Passage 1 剑桥雅思4 Test 1的第一篇文章讲解了某一项关于 […]

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剑桥雅思4 Test 1阅读原文翻译 Passage 1

剑桥雅思4 Test 1的第一篇文章讲解了某一项关于孩子对热带雨林所持观点的研究。文章分为11段,分别介绍了调查的结果,产生错误观念的原因,该项研究的目的等。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

文末附有这篇雅思阅读文章要掌握的词汇,以及具体的答案解析

这套题目剩下两篇文章的翻译请点击这里:剑桥雅思4 Test 1阅读原文翻译 Passage 2 鲸鱼感官&剑桥雅思4 Test 1阅读原文翻译 Passage 3 视觉符号与盲人

第1段

Adults and children are frequently confronted with statements about the alarming rate of loss of tropical rainforests. For example, one graphic illustration to which children might readily relate is the estimate that rainforests are being destroyed at a rate equivalent to one thousand football fields every forty minutes – about the duration of a normal classroom period. In the face of the frequent and often vivid media coverage, it is likely that children will have formed ideas about rainforests -what and where they are, why they are important, what endangers them – independent of any formal tuition. It is also possible that some of these ideas will be mistaken.

成人和儿童经常面对有关热带雨林正在以的惊人速度丧失的说法。例如,儿童很容易联想到一种图形化的解释:据估计热带雨林被破坏的速度相当于每四十分钟一千个足球场-大约是正常课堂的持续时间。面对媒体频繁而生动的报道,孩子们可能会形成关于雨林的想法:它们的种类和位置,它们为什么重要,以及什么使它们陷入威胁。这些观念独立于任何正式的教育。它们中的一些也可能是错误的。

第2段

Many studies have shown that children harbour misconceptions about ‘pure’, curriculum science. These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework, making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification. These ideas may be developed by children absorbing ideas through the popular media. Sometimes this information may be erroneous. It seems schools may not be providing an opportunity for children to re-express their ideas and so have them tested and refined by teachers and their peers.

许多研究表明,孩子们对“纯粹的”,课程里的科学怀有误解。这些误解并不是孤立存在的,而是被整合到一个多方面但有组织的概念框架中,使它成为完整的观点。其中一些是错误的,但更多的是可靠的,并且是可以修改的。文章来自老烤鸭雅思这些想法可能是儿童通过吸收大众媒体的观点而形成的。有时,该信息可能是错误的。看来学校可能没有为孩子们提供一个重新表达他们想法的机会,并因此让老师和他们的同伴对这些想法进行测试和完善。

第3段

Despite the extensive coverage in the popular media of the destruction of rainforests, little formal information is available about children’s ideas in this area. The aim of the present study is to start to provide such information, to help teachers design their educational strategies to build upon correct ideas and to displace misconceptions and to plan programmes in environmental studies in their schools.

尽管大众媒体对热带雨林破坏的大规模报道,很少有关于孩子在这一领域观点的信息。当前这一研究的目的是开始提供这些信息,以帮助教师在正确的观念上设计他们的教育策略,替换错误的认知,并在学校的环境学习中计划新的项目。

第4段

The study surveys children’s scientific knowledge and attitudes to rainforests. Secondary school children were asked to complete a questionnaire containing five open-form questions. The most frequent responses to the first question were descriptions which are self-evident from the term ‘rainforest’. Some children described them as damp, wet or hot. The second question concerned the geographical location of rainforests. The commonest responses were continents or countries: Africa (given by 43%of children), South America (30%), Brazil (25%). Some children also gave more general locations, such as being near the Equator.

这项研究调查的孩子对热带雨林的科学知识和态度。要求中学生填写包含五个开放式问题在内的调查问卷。对第一个问题的最常见回答是“雨林” 一词的不言而喻的描述。一些孩子将它们描述为湿润、潮湿或高温。第二个问题涉及雨林的地理位置。最普遍的回答是各大洲或国家:非洲(占43%的儿童),南美(占30%),巴西(占25%)。一些孩子还提供了更一般的位置,例如靠近赤道。

第5段

Responses to question three concerned the importance of rainforests. The dominant idea, raised by 64% of the pupils, was that rainforests provide animals with habitats. Fewer students responded that rainforests provide plant habitats, and even fewer mentioned the indigenous populations of rainforests. More girls (70%) than boys (60%) raised the idea of rainforest as animal habitats.

对问题三的答复涉及雨林的重要性。由64%的学生提出的主要想法是,雨林为动物提供了栖息地。较少的学生回答说,雨林提供了植物栖息地,而提到雨林土著种群的则更少。提出雨林作为动物栖息地的想法的女孩(70%)比男孩(60%)多。

第6段

Similarly, but at a lower level, more girls (13%) than boys (5%) said that rainforests provided human habitats. These observations are generally consistent with our previous studies of pupils’ views about the use and conservation of rainforests, in which girls were shown to be more sympathetic to animals and expressed views which seem to place an intrinsic value on non-human animal life.

同样,但在较低的水平上,更多女孩(13%)比男孩(5%)认为雨林提供了人类栖息地。这些意见与我们以前的对学生关于热带雨林用途和保护的意见的研究结果是一致的,其中女孩被证明更加同情动物,并表达出对非人类动物生命内在价值的看法。

第7段

The fourth question concerned the causes of the destruction of rainforests. Perhaps encouragingly, more than half of the pupils (59%) identified that it is human activities which are destroying rainforests, some personalising the responsibility by the use of terms such as ‘we are’. About 18% of the pupils referred specifically to logging activity.

第四个问题涉及破坏雨林的原因。也许令人鼓舞的是,超过一半的学生(59%)认为是人类活动正在破坏热带雨林,其中一些人通过使用诸如“我们是” 这样的术语来个人化责任。约有18%的学生专门提到伐木活动。

第8段

One misconception, expressed by some 10% of the pupils, was that acid rain is responsible for rainforest destruction; a similar proportion said that pollution is destroying rainforests. Here, children are confusing rainforest destruction with damage to the forests of Western Europe by these factors. While two fifths of the students provided the information that the rainforests provide oxygen, in some cases this response also embraced the misconception that rainforest destruction would reduce atmospheric oxygen, making the atmosphere incompatible with human life on Earth.

约有10%的学生表达了一种误解,认为酸雨是造成雨林破坏的原因。同样比例的人说,污染正在破坏雨林。在这里,孩子们混淆了破坏热带雨林与到破坏西欧森林的因素。虽然五分之二的学生提供了雨林提供氧气的信息,但在某些情况下,这种回应还包含了这样一种误解,即雨林的破坏会减少大气中的氧气,使大气不适合地球上的人类。

第9段

In answer to the final question about the importance of rainforest conservation, the majority of children simply said that we need rainforests to survive. Only a few of the pupils (6%) mentioned that rainforest destruction may contribute to global warming. This is surprising considering the high level of media coverage on this issue. Some children expressed the idea that the conservation of rainforests is not important.

在最后一个关于热带雨林保护重要性的问题的回答中,大多数的孩子只是说,我们需要雨林生存。只有极少数的学生(6%)提到雨林的破坏可能导致全球变暖。考虑到媒体对这一问题的高度报道,这令人惊讶。一些孩子表示保护雨林并不重要。

第10段

The results of this study suggest that certain ideas predominate in the thinking of children about rainforests. Pupils’ responses indicate some misconceptions in basic scientific knowledge of rainforests’ ecosystems such as their ideas about rainforests as habitats for animals, plants and humans and the relationship between climatic change and destruction of rainforests.

这项研究的结果表明,某些想法在儿童关于雨林的思考中占主导地位。学生的反应表明对雨林生态系统一些基本知识的误解,如他们对热带雨林作为动物,植物和人类栖息地的看法,以及气候变化和雨林破坏之间的关系。

第11段

Pupils did not volunteer ideas that suggested that they appreciated the complexity of causes of rainforest destruction. In other words, they gave no indication of an appreciation of either the range of ways in which rainforests are important or the complex social, economic and political factors which drive the activities which are destroying the rainforests. One encouragement is that the results of similar studies about other environmental issues suggest that older children seem to acquire the ability to appreciate, value and evaluate conflicting views. Environmental education offers an arena in which these skills can be developed, which is essential for these children as future decision-makers.

学生没有主动提出他们认识到雨林破坏原因的复杂性。换句话说,他们没有意识到雨林为什么重要,以及推动雨林破坏活动背后的复杂社会、经济与政治因素。一种鼓励是,关于其他环境问题的类似研究结果表明,年龄较大的儿童似乎具有认识,重视和评估矛盾观点的能力。环境教育为这些技能的发展提供了一个舞台,这对于作为未来的决策者的孩子来说至关重要。

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