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剑桥雅思4 Test 3阅读Passage 1原文翻译 为流浪儿童提供的小型企业贷款 micro-enterp […]

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剑桥雅思4 Test 3阅读Passage 1原文翻译 为流浪儿童提供的小型企业贷款 micro-enterprise credit for street youth

剑桥雅思4第三套题目第一篇文章介绍了某个帮扶流浪儿童的计划。文章带上引入一共分为六部分,分别是关于使用者的感受、简介、背景、具体的援助计划、从中得到的经验教训、以及最后的结论。下面是具体每一段的翻译:

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剑桥雅思4 Test 3阅读Passage 1答案解析 小型企业贷款对流浪儿童的重要性

剑4 Test 3 Passage 1原文翻译

引入

‘I am from a large, poor family and for many years we have done without breakfast. Ever since I joined the Street Kids International program I have been able to buy my family sugar and buns for breakfast. I have also bought myself decent second-hand clothes and shoes.’

我来自一个贫穷的大家庭,多年来我们一直没有早餐吃。自从我加入“街头儿童国际” 计划以来,我就能够为家人购买糖和面包作为早餐。我还给自己买了不错的二手衣服和鞋子。”

Doreen Soko 多琳·索科

‘We’ve had business experience. Now I’m confident to expand what we’ve been doing. I’ve learnt cash management, and the way of keeping money so we save for reinvestment. Now business is a part of our lives. As well, we didn’t know each other before – now we’ve made new friends.’

‘我们有商业经验。现在,我有信心扩大我们一直在做的事情。我已经学会了现金管理以及保留资金的方式,因此我们可以省下一部分钱来用于再投资。现在,业务已成为我们生活的一部分。我们以前也不认识彼此,但现在我们交了新朋友。

Fan Kaoma 范考玛

Participants in the Youth skills ENterprise Initiative Program, Zambia 赞比亚青年技能会企业行动项目参与者

介绍

Although small-scale business training and credit programs have become more common throughout the world, relatively little attention has been paid to the need to direct such opportunities to young people. Even less attention has been paid to children living on the streets or in difficult circumstances.

尽管小规模的企业培训和信贷计划在世界范围内变得越来越普遍,但对于将此类机会给予给年轻人的需求却很少受到关注。对流落街头或处境困难的儿童的关注甚至更少。

Over the past nine years, Street Kids International (S. K. I.) has been working with partner organisations in Africa, Latin America and India to support the economic lives of street children. The purpose of this paper is to share some of the lessons S. K. I. and our partners have learned.

在过去的九年中,街头儿童国际(SKI)与非洲,拉丁美洲和印度的合作伙伴组织合作,以支持街头儿童的经济生活。本文的目的是分享SKI和我们的合作伙伴在此过程中所学到的一些经验教训。

背景

Typically, children do not end up on the streets due to a single cause, but to a combination of factors: a dearth of adequately funded schools, the demand for income at home, family breakdown and violence. The street may be attractive to children as a place to find adventurous play and money. However, it is also a place where some children are exposed, with little or no protection, to exploitative employment, urban crime, and abuse.

通常,儿童不会因为单一原因而流落街头,而是由于多种因素:缺乏足够资金的学校,对家庭收入的需求,家庭破裂和暴力。街头作为寻找冒险游戏和金钱的地方可能文章来自老烤鸭雅思对儿童具有吸引力。但是,这里也是一些儿童在很少或没有保护的情况下遭受剥削性就业,城市犯罪和虐待的地方。

Children who work on the streets are generally involved in unskilled, labour-intensive tasks which require long hours, such as shining shoes, carrying goods, guarding or washing cars, and informal trading. Some may also earn income through begging, or through theft and other illegal activities. At the same time, there are street children who take pride in supporting themselves and their families and who often enjoy their work. Many children may choose entrepreneurship because it allows them a degree of independence, is less exploitative than many forms of paid employment, and is flexible enough to allow them to participate in other activities such as education and domestic tasks.

在街头上班的儿童通常会从事无需要技能的劳动密集型工作,这些工作需要很长时间,例如擦鞋,搬运货物,护卫或洗车,以及非正式贸易。有些人可能还通过乞讨,盗窃和其他非法活动赚取收入。同时,有一些流浪儿童以能够养活自己和家人为荣,并且经常享受他们的工作。许多孩子之所以选择创业,是因为它使他们有一定程度的独立性,比许多形式的有偿工作会少受剥削,并且具有足够的灵活性以允许他们参加其他活动,例如教育和家务劳动。

街头商业伙伴关系

S. K. I. has worked with partner organisations in Latin America, Africa and India to develop innovative opportunities for street children to earn income.

SKI已与拉丁美洲,非洲和印度的合作伙伴组织合作,为流浪儿童创造创收机会。

  • The S. K. I. Bicycle Courier Service first started in the Sudan. Participants in this enterprise were supplied with bicycles, which they used to deliver parcels and messages, and which they were required to pay for gradually from their wages. A similar program was taken up in Bangalore, India.
  • SKI自行车快递服务首先在苏丹开始。它向该项目的参与者提供自行车,让他们用来运送包裹和信件,并要求他们用工资逐步支付。一项类似的计划也在印度的班加罗尔实行。
  •  Another successful project, the Shoe Shine Collective, was a partnership program with the Y. W. C. A. in the Dominican Republic. In this project, participants were lent money to purchase shoe shine boxes. They were also given a safe place to store their equipment, and facilities for individual savings plans.
  • 另一个成功的项目Shoe Shine Collective是与多米尼加共和国的Y.W.C.A的伙伴关系计划。在该项目中,参与者借钱购买擦鞋盒。项目还为他们提供了一个存放设备的安全场所,以及用于个人储蓄计划的设施。
  • The Youth Skills Enterprise Initiative in Zambia is a joint program with the Red Cross Society and the Y. W. C. A. Street youths are supported to start their own small business through business training, life skills training and access to credit.
  • 赞比亚的青年技能企业倡议是与红十字会的一项联合计划,青少年通过商业培训,生活技能培训和获取信贷,得到支持创办自己的小企业。

得到的教训

The following lessons have emerged from the programs that S. K. I. and partner organisations have created.

SKI和合作伙伴组织从开启的项目中吸取了以下教训。

  • Being an entrepreneur is not for everyone, nor for every street child. Ideally, potential participants will have been involved in the organisation’s programs for at least six months, and trust and relationship-building will have already been established.
  • 成为企业家并不适合所有人,也不适合每个流浪儿童。理想情况下,潜在参与者将参与该组织的项目至少六个月,并且已经建立了信任和关系。
  • The involvement of the participants has been essential to the development of relevant programs. When children have had a major role in determining procedures, they are more likely to abide by and enforce them.
  • 参与者的参与对于制定相关计划至关重要。当孩子在决定过程中起主要作用时,他们更有可能遵守并执行。
  • It is critical for all loans to be linked to training programs that include the development of basic business and life skills.
  • 将所有贷款与包括基本业务和生活技能开发在内的培训计划联系起来至关重要。
  • There are tremendous advantages to involving parents or guardians in the program, where such relationships exist. Home visits allow staff the opportunity to know where the participants live, and to understand more about each individual’s situation.
  • 在存在这种关系的情况下,让父母或监护人参与到计划中具有极大的优势。家访使员工有机会了解参与者的住所,并了解每个人的情况。
  • Small loans are provided initially for purchasing fixed assets such as bicycles, shoe shine kits and basic building materials for a market stall. As the entrepreneurs gain experience, the enterprises can be gradually expanded and consideration can be given to increasing loan amounts. The loan amounts in S. K. I. programs have generally ranged from US $30-$100.
  • 最初提供小额贷款来购买固定资产,例如自行车,擦鞋工具包和市场摊位的基本建材。随着企业家的经验积累,企业会逐步扩大,可以考虑增加贷款额。SKI计划的贷款额通常在30至100美元之间。
  • All S. K. I. programs have charged interest on the loans, primarily to get the entrepreneurs used to the concept of paying interest on borrowed money. Generally the rates have been modest (lower than bank rates).
  • 所有SKI计划都对贷款收取利息,主要是为了使企业家习惯于借贷支付利息的概念。通常,利率是适中的(低于银行利率)。

结论

There is a need to recognise the importance of access to credit for impoverished young people seeking to fulfil economic needs. The provision of small loans to support the entrepreneurial dreams and ambitions of youth can be an effective means to help them change their lives. However, we believe that credit must be extended in association with other types of support that help participants develop critical life skills as well as productive businesses.

有必要认识到寻求满足经济需求的贫困青年获得信贷的重要性。提供小额贷款支持青年人的创业梦想和野心可以成为帮助他们改变生活的有效手段。但是,我们认为贷款必须与其他类型的支持相结合,这些支持可以帮助参与者发展关键的生活技能以及生产性业务。

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