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剑桥雅思4 Test 3阅读Passage 1原文翻译 为流浪儿童提供的小型企业贷款 micro-enterp […]

剑桥雅思4 Test 3阅读Passage 1原文翻译 为流浪儿童提供的小型企业贷款 micro-enterprise credit for street youth



雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思4 test 3 passage 1

剑桥雅思4 Test 3阅读Passage 1答案解析 小型企业贷款对流浪儿童的重要性

剑4 Test 3 Passage 1原文翻译


‘I am from a large, poor family and for many years we have done without breakfast. Ever since I joined the Street Kids International program I have been able to buy my family sugar and buns for breakfast. I have also bought myself decent second-hand clothes and shoes.’

我来自一个贫穷的大家庭,多年来我们一直没有早餐吃。自从我加入“街头儿童国际” 计划以来,我就能够为家人购买糖和面包作为早餐。我还给自己买了不错的二手衣服和鞋子。”

Doreen Soko 多琳·索科

‘We’ve had business experience. Now I’m confident to expand what we’ve been doing. I’ve learnt cash management, and the way of keeping money so we save for reinvestment. Now business is a part of our lives. As well, we didn’t know each other before – now we’ve made new friends.’


Fan Kaoma 范考玛

Participants in the Youth skills ENterprise Initiative Program, Zambia 赞比亚青年技能会企业行动项目参与者


Although small-scale business training and credit programs have become more common throughout the world, relatively little attention has been paid to the need to direct such opportunities to young people. Even less attention has been paid to children living on the streets or in difficult circumstances.


Over the past nine years, Street Kids International (S. K. I.) has been working with partner organisations in Africa, Latin America and India to support the economic lives of street children. The purpose of this paper is to share some of the lessons S. K. I. and our partners have learned.



Typically, children do not end up on the streets due to a single cause, but to a combination of factors: a dearth of adequately funded schools, the demand for income at home, family breakdown and violence. The street may be attractive to children as a place to find adventurous play and money. However, it is also a place where some children are exposed, with little or no protection, to exploitative employment, urban crime, and abuse.


Children who work on the streets are generally involved in unskilled, labour-intensive tasks which require long hours, such as shining shoes, carrying goods, guarding or washing cars, and informal trading. Some may also earn income through begging, or through theft and other illegal activities. At the same time, there are street children who take pride in supporting themselves and their families and who often enjoy their work. Many children may choose entrepreneurship because it allows them a degree of independence, is less exploitative than many forms of paid employment, and is flexible enough to allow them to participate in other activities such as education and domestic tasks.



S. K. I. has worked with partner organisations in Latin America, Africa and India to develop innovative opportunities for street children to earn income.


  • The S. K. I. Bicycle Courier Service first started in the Sudan. Participants in this enterprise were supplied with bicycles, which they used to deliver parcels and messages, and which they were required to pay for gradually from their wages. A similar program was taken up in Bangalore, India.
  • SKI自行车快递服务首先在苏丹开始。它向该项目的参与者提供自行车,让他们用来运送包裹和信件,并要求他们用工资逐步支付。一项类似的计划也在印度的班加罗尔实行。
  •  Another successful project, the Shoe Shine Collective, was a partnership program with the Y. W. C. A. in the Dominican Republic. In this project, participants were lent money to purchase shoe shine boxes. They were also given a safe place to store their equipment, and facilities for individual savings plans.
  • 另一个成功的项目Shoe Shine Collective是与多米尼加共和国的Y.W.C.A的伙伴关系计划。在该项目中,参与者借钱购买擦鞋盒。项目还为他们提供了一个存放设备的安全场所,以及用于个人储蓄计划的设施。
  • The Youth Skills Enterprise Initiative in Zambia is a joint program with the Red Cross Society and the Y. W. C. A. Street youths are supported to start their own small business through business training, life skills training and access to credit.
  • 赞比亚的青年技能企业倡议是与红十字会的一项联合计划,青少年通过商业培训,生活技能培训和获取信贷,得到支持创办自己的小企业。


The following lessons have emerged from the programs that S. K. I. and partner organisations have created.


  • Being an entrepreneur is not for everyone, nor for every street child. Ideally, potential participants will have been involved in the organisation’s programs for at least six months, and trust and relationship-building will have already been established.
  • 成为企业家并不适合所有人,也不适合每个流浪儿童。理想情况下,潜在参与者将参与该组织的项目至少六个月,并且已经建立了信任和关系。
  • The involvement of the participants has been essential to the development of relevant programs. When children have had a major role in determining procedures, they are more likely to abide by and enforce them.
  • 参与者的参与对于制定相关计划至关重要。当孩子在决定过程中起主要作用时,他们更有可能遵守并执行。
  • It is critical for all loans to be linked to training programs that include the development of basic business and life skills.
  • 将所有贷款与包括基本业务和生活技能开发在内的培训计划联系起来至关重要。
  • There are tremendous advantages to involving parents or guardians in the program, where such relationships exist. Home visits allow staff the opportunity to know where the participants live, and to understand more about each individual’s situation.
  • 在存在这种关系的情况下,让父母或监护人参与到计划中具有极大的优势。家访使员工有机会了解参与者的住所,并了解每个人的情况。
  • Small loans are provided initially for purchasing fixed assets such as bicycles, shoe shine kits and basic building materials for a market stall. As the entrepreneurs gain experience, the enterprises can be gradually expanded and consideration can be given to increasing loan amounts. The loan amounts in S. K. I. programs have generally ranged from US $30-$100.
  • 最初提供小额贷款来购买固定资产,例如自行车,擦鞋工具包和市场摊位的基本建材。随着企业家的经验积累,企业会逐步扩大,可以考虑增加贷款额。SKI计划的贷款额通常在30至100美元之间。
  • All S. K. I. programs have charged interest on the loans, primarily to get the entrepreneurs used to the concept of paying interest on borrowed money. Generally the rates have been modest (lower than bank rates).
  • 所有SKI计划都对贷款收取利息,主要是为了使企业家习惯于借贷支付利息的概念。通常,利率是适中的(低于银行利率)。


There is a need to recognise the importance of access to credit for impoverished young people seeking to fulfil economic needs. The provision of small loans to support the entrepreneurial dreams and ambitions of youth can be an effective means to help them change their lives. However, we believe that credit must be extended in association with other types of support that help participants develop critical life skills as well as productive businesses.


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