剑桥雅思4 Test 4阅读Passage 1原文翻译 运动员成绩提升 How much higher? How much faster?
剑4 Test 4 Passage 1阅读原文翻译
Since the early years of the twentieth century, when the International Athletic Federation began keeping records, there has been a steady improvement in how fast athletes run, how high they jump and how far they are able to hurl massive objects, them-selves included, through space. For the so-called power events – that require a relatively brief, explosive release of energy, like the 100-metre sprint and the long jump – times and distances have improved ten to twenty per cent. In the endurance events the results have been more dramatic. At the 1908 Olympics, John Hayes of the U.S. team ran a marathon in a time of 2:55:18. In 1999, Morocco’s Khalid Khannouchi set a new world record of 2:05:42, almost thirty per cent faster.
从20世纪初期开始，根据国际田径联合会（International Athletic Federation）的记录，运动员的跑动速度，跳的高度，以及穿过空间扔大物体（包括他们自己）的距离一直在稳步提高。对于所谓的力量项目（需要相对短暂的爆炸性能量释放，例如100米的短跑和跳远），时间和距离增加了10％至20％。在耐力赛中，结果更加引人注目。在1908年奥运会上，美国队的约翰·海斯（John Hayes）用2:55:18的时间完成了马拉松比赛。 1999年，摩洛哥的Khalid Khannouchi 创造了2:05:42 的新世界纪录，快了近30％。
No one theory can explain improvements in performance, but the most important factor has been genetics. ‘The athlete must choose his parents carefully,’ says Jesus Dapena, a sports scientist at Indiana University, invoking an oftcited adage. Over the past century, the composition of the human gene pool has not changed appreciably, but with increasing global participation in athletics – and greater rewards to tempt athletes – it is more likely that individuals possessing the unique complement of genes for athletic performance can be identified early. ‘Was there someone like [sprinter] Michael Johnson in the 1920s?’ Dapena asks. ‘I’m sure there was, but his talent was probably never realised.’
没有任何一种理论可以解释表现的提升，但是最重要的因素是遗传学。印第安纳大学体育科学家耶稣· 达佩纳（Jesus Dapena）引用了这句常说的话，说：“运动员必须谨慎选择父母。” 在过去的一个世纪中，人类基因库的组成文章来自老烤鸭雅思并没有发生明显变化，但是随着全球对体育运动的参与不断增加，以及对运动员的奖励越来越多，人们更有可能在早期识别出拥有独特运动表现基因的个体。“在1920年代有没有像[短跑运动员]迈克尔·约翰逊这样的人？” Dapena 问。“我敢肯定有，但他的才华可能从未实现。”
Identifying genetically talented individuals is only the first step. Michael Yessis, an emeritus professor of Sports Science at California State University at Fullerton, maintains that ‘genetics only determines about one third of what an athlete can do. But with the right training we can go much further with that one third than we’ve been going.’ Yessis believes that U.S. runners, despite their impressive achievements, are ‘running on their genetics’. By applying more scientific methods, ‘they’re going to go much faster’. These methods include strength training that duplicates what they are doing in their running events as well as plyometrics, a technique pioneered in the former Soviet Union.
识别具有遗传天赋的人只是第一步。富勒顿加利福尼亚州州立大学体育科学系名誉教授Michael Yessis 认为“遗传学只能决定一个人表现的三分之一”。但是，通过正确的训练，我们可以比现在更加充分的利用这三分之一。Yessis 认为，尽管美国运动员取得了令人瞩目的成就，但他们仍在“依靠自己的基因”。通过采用更科学的方法，“他们将变得更快”。这些方法包括力量训练（可复制他们在跑步中所做的事情）以及测距法，这是前苏联开创的技术。
Whereas most exercises are designed to build up strength or endurance, plyometrics focuses on increasing power – the rate at which an athlete can expend energy. When a sprinter runs, Yessis explains, her foot stays in contact with the ground for just under a tenth of a second, half of which is devoted to landing and the other half to pushing off. Plyometric exercises help athletes make the best use of this brief interval.
Nutrition is another area that sports trainers have failed to address adequately. ‘Many athletes are not getting the best nutrition, even through supplements,’ Yessis insists. Each activity has its own nutritional needs. Few coaches, for instance, understand how deficiencies in trace minerals can lead to injuries.
营养是运动教练未能充分注意的另一个领域。Yessis 坚持说：“ 即使通过补品，许多运动员也无法获得最好的营养。” 每种活动都有其自身的营养需求。例如，很少有教练了解微量矿物质的缺乏如何导致伤害。
Focused training will also play a role in enabling records to be broken. ‘If we applied the Russian training model to some of the outstanding runners we have in this country,’ Yessis asserts, ‘they would be breaking records left and right.’ He will not predict by how much, however: ‘Exactly what the limits are it’s hard to say, but there will be increases even if only by hundredths of a second, as long as our training continues to improve.’
重点训练在帮助打破记录上也发挥作用。Yessis 断言：“如果我们将俄罗斯的训练模式应用于该国一些杰出的跑步者，他们将随意打破纪录。” 但是，他不会预测能提升多少：“很难说到底有什么限制，但是只要我们的训练持续改进，即使只有百分之一秒，成绩也会有所增加。”
One of the most important new methodologies is biomechanics, the study of the body in motion. A biomechanic films an athlete in action and then digitizes her performance, recording the motion of every joint and limb in three dimensions. By applying Newton’s laws to these motions, ‘we can say that this athlete’s run is not fast enough; that this one is not using his arms strongly enough during take-off,’ says Dapena, who uses these methods to help high jumpers. To date, however, biomechanics has made only a small difference to athletic performance.
生物力学是最重要的新方法之一，它对运动中的人体进行研究。生物力学家拍摄运动员的动作，然后将她的表现的数字化，在三维空间中记录每一个关节和肢体的运动。通过将牛顿定律应用于这些运动，Dapena 说，“我们可以说这位运动员跑地还不够快。他在起跳时没有充分使用双臂。” 他使用这些方法帮助跳高运动员。然而，迄今为止，生物力学对运动成绩的影响很小。
Revolutionary ideas still come from the athletes themselves. For example, during the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City, a relatively unknown high jumper named Dick Fosbury won the gold by going over the bar backwards, in complete contradiction of all the received high-jumping wisdom, a move instantly dubbed the Fosbury flop. Fosbury himself did not know what he was doing. That understanding took the later analysis of biomechanics specialists, who put their minds to comprehending something that was too complex and unorthodox ever to have been invented through their own mathematical simulations. Fosbury also required another element that lies behind many improvements in athletic performance: an innovation in athletic equipment. In Fosbury’s case, it was the cushions that jumpers land on. Traditionally, high jumpers would land in pits filled with sawdust. But by Fosbury’s time, sawdust pits had been replaced by soft foam cushions, ideal for flopping.
In the end, most people who examine human performance are humbled by the resourceful-ness of athletes and the powers of the human body. ‘Once you study athletics, you learn that it’s a vexingly complex issue,’ says John S. Raglin, a sports psychologist at Indiana University. ‘Core performance is not a simple or mundane thing of higher, faster, longer. So many variables enter into the equation, and our understanding in many cases is fundamental. We’ve got a long way to go.’ For the foreseeable future, records will be made to be broken.
最后，大多数观察人类表现的人面对运动员的机智和人体的力量都会感到谦卑。印第安纳大学的运动心理学家约翰· 拉格林说：“一旦学习了体育，就会发现这是一个非常复杂的问题。” “核心表现不是更高，更快，更远这种简单而平凡的事情。这么多变量进入方程式，在许多情况下我们的理解十分基础。我们还有很长的路要走。在可预见的将来，记录将被打破。