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剑桥雅思7Test2阅读Passage3原文翻译 Makete Integrated Rural Transp […]

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剑桥雅思7Test2阅读Passage3原文翻译 Makete Integrated Rural Transport Project 马克特乡村综合交通运输项目

剑桥雅思7阅读第二套题目第三篇文章的主题为坦桑尼亚马克特地区的乡村交通一体化项目。文章共分为6部分,每部分又分成数量不等的自然段,分别介绍了该项目的实施背景,实施步骤,经验总结,以及长期影响。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及具体题目的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思7 test 2 passage 3 一体化交通项目

剑桥雅思7Test2阅读Passage3答案解析 Makete Integrated Rural Transport Project 马克特乡村一体化交通运输项目

剑桥雅思7 Test 2 Passage 3阅读原文翻译

A部分

第1段

The disappointing results of many conventional road transport projects in Africa led some experts to rethink the strategy by which rural transport problems were to be tackled at the beginning of the 1980s. A request for help in improving the availability of transport within the remote Makete District of south- western Tanzania presented the opportunity to try a new approach.

非洲许多常规道路运输项目令人失望的结果使一些专家重新考虑在20世纪80年代初解决农村运输问题的战略。寻求帮助以改善坦桑尼亚西南部偏远的马克特地区的交通便利性为尝试新方法提供了机会。

第2段

The concept of ‘integrated rural transport’ was adopted in the task of examining the transport needs of the rural households in the district. The objective was to reduce the time and effort needed to obtain access to essential goods and services through an improved rural transport system. The underlying assumption was that the time saved would be used instead for activities that would improve the social and economic development of the communities. The Makete Integrated Rural Transport Project (MIRTP) started in 1985 with financial support from the Swiss Development Corporation and was co-ordinated with the help of the Tanzanian government.

在考察该地区农村家庭的运输需求时,采用了“农村综合运输”的概念。目的是通过改进的农村文章来自老烤鸭雅思运输系统减少获得基本商品和服务所需的时间和精力。背后假设是节省的时间将被用于从事能够改善社区社会和经济发展的活动。马克特农村综合运输项目(MIRTP)在瑞士开发公司的经济支持下于1985年开始,并由坦桑尼亚政府帮助协调。

B部分

第1段

When the project began, Makete District was virtually totally isolated during the rainy season. The regional road was in such bad shape that access to the main towns was impossible for about three months of the year. Road traffic was extremely rare within the district, and alternative means of transport were restricted to donkeys in the north of the district. People relied primarily on the paths, which were slippery and dangerous during the rains.

项目开始时,马克特地区在雨季几乎完全与世隔绝。该地区的道路状况如此恶劣,以至于一年中有三个月都无法进入主要城镇。在该地区,道路交通极为罕见。在北部,替代运输工具仅限于驴。人们主要依靠小径进出。在下雨时这条路很滑而且很危险。

第2段

Before solutions could be proposed, the problems had to be understood. Little was known about the transport demands of the rural households, so Phase Ⅰ, between December 1985 and December 1987, focused on research. The socio-economic survey of more than 400 households in the district indicated that a household in Makete spent, on average, seven hours a day on transporting themselves and their goods, a figure which seemed extreme but which has also been obtained in surveys in other rural areas in Africa. Interesting facts regarding transport were found: 95% was on foot; 80% was within the locality; and 70% was related to the collection of water and firewood and travelling to grinding mills.

在提出解决方案之前,必须先了解问题。对农村家庭的运输需求知之甚少。因此,从1985年12月至1987年12月的第一阶段将重点放在研究上。对该地区400多个家庭进行的社会经济调查表明,马克特一个家庭平均每天花费7个小时来运输他们自己和货物,这个数字看似极端,但在非洲其他地区进行的调查也得出了相同的结论。有关交通运输的有趣事实如下:95%靠步行;80%在当地;70%与收集水和柴火,并前往磨坊有关。

C部分

第1段

Having determined the main transport needs, possible solutions were identified which might reduce the time and burden. During Phase Ⅱ, from January to February 1991, a number of approaches were implemented in an effort to improve mobility and access to transport.

确定主要交通运输需求之后,提出了可能的解决方案。它们可以减少时间和负担。在第二阶段,即1991年1月至2月,实施了许多方法以努力改善流动性和交通便利性。

第2段

An improvement of the road network was considered necessary to ensure the import and export of goods to the district. These improvements were carried out using methods that were heavily dependent on labour. In addition to the improvement of roads, these methods provided training in the operation of a mechanical workshop and bus and truck services. However, the difference from the conventional approach was that this time consideration was given to local transport needs outside the road network.

人们认为有必要改善道路网络,以确保该地区的货物进出。这些提升使用严重依赖人工的方法。除了改善道路外,这些方案还提供机械车间以及公共汽车和卡车服务的操作培训。但是,与传统方法的区别在于,这次考虑的是路网之外的本地运输需求。

第3段

Most goods were transported along the paths that provide short-cuts up and down the hillsides, but the paths were a real safety risk and made the journey on foot even more arduous. It made sense to improve the paths by building steps, handrails and footbridges.

大多数货物都通过上下山的捷径进行运输。但是这些路径存在安全隐患,使徒步过程更加艰巨。通过建造台阶,扶手和人行桥梁来改善道路是有意义的。

第4段

It was uncommon to find means of transport that were more efficient than walking but less technologically advanced than motor vehicles. The use of bicycles was constrained by their high cost and the lack of available spare parts. Oxen were not used at all but donkeys were used by a few households in the northern part of the district. MIRTP focused on what would be most appropriate for the inhabitants of Makete in terms of what was available, how much they could afford and what they were willing to accept. After careful consideration, the project chose the promotion of donkeys – a donkey costs less than a bicycle- and the introduction of a locally manufacturable wheelbarrow.

找到一种比步行更高效但技术先进程度低于机动车的运输方式并不寻常。自行车的使用受制于其高昂的成本和缺乏可用的备件。该地区北部的几户居民根本不用牛,但却用驴子。MIRTP努力寻找最适合马克特地区居民的交通方式,专注于有哪些方式可供选择,他们可以承担多少开支,以及他们愿意接受什么。经过仔细考虑,该项目选择推广驴-驴的成本低于自行车-并引入在本地就可以制造的独轮车。

D部分

第1段

At the end of Phase Ⅱ, it was clear that the selected approaches to Makete’s transport problems had had different degrees of success. Phase Ⅲ, from March 1991 to March 1993, focused on the refinement and institutionalisation of these activities.

在第二阶段结束时,针对马克特地区交通运输问题所选择的方法很明显获得了不同程度的成功。1991年3月至1993年3月的第三阶段着重于这些活动的完善和制度化。

第2段

The road improvements and accompanying maintenance system had helped make the district centre accessible throughout the year. Essential goods from outside the district had become more readily available at the market, and prices did not fluctuate as much as they had done before.

道路的改善和配套的养护系统使得整个区域中心全年都能通行。来自地区之外的必要商品在市场上变得越来越容易获得,价格的波动也没有以前那样大。

第3段

Paths and secondary roads were improved only at the request of communities who were willing to participate in construction and maintenance. However, the improved paths impressed the inhabitants, and requests for assistance greatly increased soon after only a few improvements had been completed.

只有在愿意参与建设和维护的社区的要求下,才会对道路和次要道路进行改善。但是,改善之后的道路给居民留下了深刻的印象。在完成了一些改进之后不就,对援助的请求大大增加。

第4段

The efforts to improve the efficiency of the existing transport services were not very successful because most of the motorised vehicles in the district broke down and there were no resources to repair them. Even the introduction of low-cost means of transport was difficult because of the general poverty of the district. The locally manufactured wheelbarrows were still too expensive for all but a few of the households. Modifications to the original design by local carpenters cut production time and costs. Other local carpenters have been trained in the new design so that they can respond to requests. Nevertheless, a locally produced wooden wheelbarrow which costs around 5000Tanzanian shillings (less than US$20) in Makete, and is about one quarter the cost of a metal wheelbarrow, is still too expensive for most people.

改善现有运输服务效率的努力不是很成功,因为该地区的大多数机动车辆出现故障,并且没有资源对其进行维修。由于该地区普遍贫困,即使采用低成本的交通工具也很困难。对于大多数家庭来说,当地制造的独轮车仍然太贵了。当地木匠对原始设计进行修改,减少了生产时间和成本。其他本地木匠已经接受新设计的培训,以便他们可以响应要求。然而,马克特本地生产的价值约5000坦桑尼亚先令(不到20美元)的独轮车(只有金属独轮车价格的四分之一)对大多数人来说仍然过于昂贵。

第5段

Donkeys, which were imported to the district, have become more common and contribute, in particular, to the transportation of crops and goods to market. Those who have bought donkeys are mainly from richer households but, with an increased supply through local breeding, donkeys should become more affordable. Meanwhile, local initiatives are promoting the renting out of the existing donkeys.

引入到该地区的驴子变得更加普遍,并且尤其有助于将农作物和商品运输到市场。驴的购买者主要来自较富裕的家庭,但随着本地养殖的增加,驴的价格应会降低。同时,地方政府正在推进出租现有的驴子。

第6段

It should be noted, however, that a donkey, which at 20,000Tanzanian shillings costs less than a bicycle, is still an investment equal to an average household’s income over half a year. This clearly illustrates the need for supplementary measures if one wants to assist the rural poor.

但是,应该指出的是,价值20000坦桑尼亚先令的驴虽然比自行车要便宜,但仍然是相当于普通家庭半年多收入的一项投资。这清楚的表明,如果要帮助农村贫困人口,就需要采取补充措施。

E部分

It would have been easy to criticise the MIRTP for using in the early phases a‘top-down’ approach, in which decisions were made by experts and officials before being handed down to communities, but it was necessary to start the process from the level of the governmental authorities of the district. It would have been difficult to respond to the requests of villagers and other rural inhabitants without the support and understanding of district authorities.

批评MIRTP在早期阶段使用“自上而下”的推动方法很容易,因为这是由专家和官员做出的决定,然后才下达给社区。但是从地区政府层面开始推进这一过程很有必要。没有地区当局的支持和理解,很难回应村民和其他农村居民的要求。

F部分

第1段

Today, nobody in the district argues about the importance of improved paths and inexpensive means of transport. But this is the result of dedicated work over a long period, particularly from the officers in charge  of community development. They played an essential role in raising awareness and interest among the rural communities.

今天,该地区没有人怀疑道路改善和廉价运输工具的重要性。但这是长期以来的不懈努力的结果,特别是来自负责社区发展的官员的努力。他们在提升农村社区的认识和兴趣方面发挥了关键性作用。

第2段

The concept of integrated rural transport is now well established in Tanzania, where a major program of rural transport is just about to start. The experiences from Makete will help in this initiative, and Makete District will act as a reference for future work.

现在,坦桑尼亚已经很好地确立了农村综合运输的概念。在那里即将开始一项重要的农村交通计划。马克特的经验将有助于此计划,同时马克特地区也将作为未来工作的参考。

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