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剑桥雅思9Test3阅读Passage1原文翻译 Attitudes to language 对待语言的态度 […]

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剑桥雅思9Test3阅读Passage1原文翻译 Attitudes to language 对待语言的态度

剑桥雅思9阅读第三套题目第一篇文章的主题为对待语言的态度。文章一共六段,采用总分总结构。开头段描述语言学研究容易引起争议的现象,中间4段描述具体的争议以及不同的学派,最后展望未来。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及对应的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思9 test 3 passage 1 对待语言的态度

剑桥雅思9Test3阅读Passage1答案解析 attitudes to language

剑桥雅思9 Test3 Passage1阅读原文翻译

第1段

It is not easy to be systematic and objective about language study. Popular linguistic debate regularly deteriorates into invective and polemic. Language belongs to everyone, so most people feel they have a right to hold an option about it. And when options differ, emotions can run high. Arguments can start as easily over minor points of usage as over major policies of linguistic education.

语言研究要想系统化和客观化并不容易。常见的语言辩论经常恶化为辱骂和诡辩。语言属于每个人,因此大多数人认为他们有权对其发表意见。当意见相左时,情绪就会激动起来。无论是针对微小的语言使用,还是针对重大的语言教育政策,争论都可能轻易开启。

第2段

Language, moreover, is a very public behavior, so it is easy for different usages to be noted and criticised. No part of society or social behavior is exempt. Linguistic factors influence how we judge personality, intelligence, social status, educational standards, job aptitude, and many other areas of identity and social survival. As a result, it is easy to hurt, and to be hurt, when language use is unfeelingly attacked.

此外,语言是一种非常公开的行为,因此不同的使用方式很容易受到注意和批评。任何社会部分文章来自老烤鸭雅思或社会行为均不能幸免。语言因素会影响我们对性格,智力,社会地位,教育水平,工作能力以及身份和社会生存等许多其他方面的判断。结果,当语言使用受到无情的攻击时,很容易伤害别人,也很容易受伤。

第3段

In its most general sense, prescriptivism is the view that one variety of language has an inherently higher value than others and that this ought to be imposed on the whole of the speech community. The view is propounded especially in relation to grammar and vocabulary, and frequently with reference to pronunciation. The variety which is favoured, in this account, is usually a version of the ‘standard’ written language, especially as encountered in literature, or in the formal spoken language which most closely reflects this style. Adherents to this variety are said to speak or write ‘correctly’ deviations from it are said to be ‘incorrect’.

从最普遍的意义上来讲,规定主义认为一种语言形式的内在价值要高于其他形式,并应将其强加给该语言群体的所有人。这一观点在词汇和语法方面尤其突出,并经常与发音联系起来。在这种观点中,最受青睐的语言形式通常为“标准”的书面版本,尤其存在于文学作品中,或者最能反映该风格的正式口语中。据说该语言形式的拥护者要说的或者写的“正确”,偏离该形式的行为会被认为是“不正确的”。

第4段

All the main languages have been studied prescriptively, especially in the 18th century approach to the writing of grammar and dictionaries. The aims of these early grammarians were threefold: (a) they wanted to codify the principles of their languages, to show that there was a system beneath the apparent chaos of usage; (b) they wanted a means of settling disputes over usage, and (c) they wanted to point out what they felt to be common errors, in order to ‘improve’ the language. The authoritarian nature of the approach is best characterized by its reliance on ‘rules’ of grammar. Some usages are ‘prescribed’, to be learnt and followed accurately; others are ‘proscribed’, to be avoided. In this early period, there were no half-measures: usage was either right or wrong, and it was the task of the grammarian not simply to record alternatives, but to pronounce judgment upon them.

所有主要语言已经经过规范性的研究,尤其是在18世纪对语法和词典的编写过程中。这些早期语法学家有三重目的的:(a)他们想编纂自己的语言原则,以表明在明显混乱的用法之下存在一个系统;(b)他们想要找出一种方式来解决用法上的争议,并且(c)他们想指出他们所认为的常见错误,以便“改善”语言。这种方法对语法规则的依赖最能反映其独裁的本质。一些用法是“规定”好的,需要准确学习和遵守;其他用法是“禁止”的,要避免使用。早期阶段没有中间地带:用法要么是对,要么是错。语法学家的任务不是简单地记录不同用法,而是对它们做出判断。

第5段

These attitudes are still with us, and they motivate a widespread concern that linguistic standards should be maintained. Nevertheless, there is an alternative point of view that is concerned less with standards than with the facts of linguistic usage. This approach is summarized in the statement that it is the task of the grammarian to describe, not prescribe—to record the facts of linguistic diversity, and not to attempt the impossible tasks of evaluating language variation or halting language change. In the second half of the 18th century, we already find advocates of this view, such as Joseph Priestley, whose Rudiments of English Grammar (1761) insists that ‘the custom of speaking is the original and only just standard of any language’. Linguistic issues, it is argued, cannot be solved by logic and legislation. And this view has become the tenet of the modern linguistic approach to grammatical analysis.

这些态度仍然存在,并且引起了人们对保留语言标准的广泛关注。然而,有一种观点更加关心语言的事实使用,而非其标准。这种观点可以总结为:语法学家的任务是描述而非规定,即记录语言多样性的事实,而不是尝试完成评价语言变种或者阻止语言改变这一不可能的任务。在18世纪后期,我们已经能够找到该观点的支持者,Joseph Preiestley。他的Rudiments of English Grammar指出:“说话的习惯是最初的语言标准,也是唯一的标准。语言问题不能通过逻辑或立法的方式来解决。这种观点已经成为现代语言学分析语法的宗旨。

第6段

In our own time, the opposition between ‘descriptivists’ and ‘prescriptivists’ has often become extreme, with both sides painting unreal pictures of the other. Descriptive grammarians have been presented as people who do not care about standards, because of the way they see all forms of usage as equally valid. Prescriptive grammarians have been presented as blind adherents to a historical tradition. The opposition has even been presented in quasi-political terms—of radical liberalism vs elitist conservatism.

在我们自己的时代,“描述主义者”和“规定主义者”之间的对立常常变得很极端。双方对彼此都存在误解。描述性语法学家被认为是不关心标准的人,因为在他们看来所有用法都是合理的。规定主义的语法学家被认为是历史传统的盲目拥护者。这种对立甚至可以用类似的政治术语来表示:激进自由主义与精英保守主义。

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