剑桥雅思9Test4阅读Passage1原文翻译 The life and work of Marie Curie 居里夫人的生活与工作
剑桥雅思9 Test4 Passage1阅读原文翻译
Marie Curie is probably the most famous woman scientist who has ever lived. Born Maria Sklodowska in Poland in 1867, she is famous for her work on radioactivity, and was twice a winner of the Nobel Prize. With her husband, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becquerel, she was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics, and was then sole winner of the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. She was the first woman to win a Noble Prize.
居里夫人可能是有史以来最著名的女科学家。她于1867年出生在波兰的玛丽亚（Maria Sklodowska），以放射性研究而闻名，曾两次获得诺贝尔奖。她与丈夫皮埃尔·居里（Pierre Curie）和亨利·贝克勒（Henri Becquerel）一起获得了1903年诺贝尔物理学奖，然后成为1911年诺贝尔化学奖的唯一获得者。她是第一位获得诺贝尔奖的女性。
From childhood, Marie was remarkable for her prodigious memory, and at the age of 16 won a gold medal on completion of her secondary education. Because her father lost his savings through bad investment, she then had to take work as a teacher. From her earnings, she was able to finance her sister Bronia’s medical studies in Paris, on the understanding that Bronia would, in turn, later help her to get an education.
In 1891 this promise was fulfilled and Marie went to Paris and began to study at the Sorbonne. She often worked far into the night and lived on little more than bread and butter and tea. She came first in the examination in the physical sciences in 1893, and in 1894 was placed second in the examination in mathematical sciences. It was not until the spring of that year that she was introduced to Pierre Curie.
Their marriage in 1895 marked the start of a partnership that was soon to achieve results of world significance. Following Henry Becquerel’s discovery in 1896 of a new phenomenon, which Marie later called ‘radioactivity’. Marie Curie decided to find out if the radioactivity discovered in uranium was to be found in other elements. She discovered that this was true for thorium.
Turning her attention to minerals, she found her interest drawn to pitchblende, a mineral whose radioactivity, superior to that of pure uranium, could be explained only by the presence in the ore of small quantities of an unknown substance of very high activity. Pierre Curie joined her in the work that she had undertaken to resolve this problem, and that led to the discovery of the new elements, polonium and radium. While Pierre Curie devoted himself chiefly to the physical study of the new radiations, Marie Curie struggled to obtain pure radium in the metallic state. This was achieved with the help of the chemist Andre—Louis Debierne, one of Pierre Curie’s pupils. Based on the results of this research, Marie Curie received her Doctorate of Science, and Marie and Pierre shared with Becquerel the Nobel Prize for Physics for the discovery of radioactivity.
在将注意力转向矿物时，她发现自己对沥青藻感兴趣，这种矿物的放射性比纯铀高。这一点只能由矿石中存在少量未知的高活性物质来解释。她着手解决这个问题，皮埃尔·居里在加入了她的工作，并促成新的元素-钋和镭的发现。当皮埃尔·居里（Pierre Curie）主要致力于对新辐射源的物理研究时，玛丽·居里（Marie Curie）通过努力获取了金属态的纯镭。这是在皮埃尔·居里的学生之一-化学家Andre-Louis Debierne的帮助下实现的。根据这项研究的结果，玛丽·居里（Marie Curie）获得了科学博士学位。1903年玛丽（Marie）、皮埃尔（Pierre）与贝克勒尔（Becquerel）因发现放射性而共同获得了诺贝尔物理学奖。
The births of Marie’s two daughters, Irene and Eve, in 1897 and 1904 failed to interrupt her scientific work. She was appointed lecturer in physics at the Ecole Normale Superieure for girls in Serves. France (1900), and introduced a method of teaching based on experimental demonstrations. In December 1904 she was appointed chief assistant in the laboratory directed by Pierre Curie.
The sudden death of her husband in 1906 was a bitter blow to Marie Curie, but was also a turning point in her career: henceforth she was to devote all her energy to completing alone the scientific work that they had undertaken. On May 13, 1906, she was appointed to the professorship that had been left vacant on her husband’s death, becoming the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the isolation of a pure form of radium.
During World War I, Marie Curie, with the help of her daughter Irene devoted herself to the development of the use of X-radiography, including the mobile units which came to be known as ‘little curies’, used for the treatment of wounded soldiers. In 1918 the Radium Institute, whose staff Irene had joined, began to operate in earnest, and became a centre for nuclear physics and chemistry. Marie Curie, now at the highest point of her fame and, from 1922, a member of the Academy of Medicine, researched the chemistry of radioactive substances and their medical applications.
第一次世界大战期间，玛丽·居里（Marie Curie）在女儿艾琳（Irene）的帮助下致力于X射线照相技术的发展，其中包括后来被称为“小咖喱”的，用于治疗受伤的士兵的可移动装置。1918年，艾琳所加入的镭研究所（Radiium Institute）开始认真运作，并成为核物理和化学的中心。玛丽·居里（Marie Curie）达到了其声望的最高点，并于1922年因研究放射性物质的化学性质及其医学应用开始担任医学科学院的成员。
In 1921, accompanied by her two daughters, Marie Curie made a triumphant journey to the United States to raise funds for research on radium. Women there presented her with a gram of radium for her campaign. Marie also gave lectures in Belgium, Brazil, Spain and Czechoslovakia and in addition, had the satisfaction of seeing the development of the Curie Foundation in Paris, and the inauguration in 1932 in Warsaw of the Radium Institute, where her sister Bronia became director.
One of Marie Curie’s outstanding achievements was to have understood the need to accumulate intense radioactive sources, not only to treat illness but also to maintain an abundant supply for research. The existence in Pairs at the Radium Institute of a stock of 1.5 grams of radium made a decisive contribution to the success of the experiments undertaken in the years around 1930. This work prepared the way for the discovery of the neutron by Sir James Chadwick and, above all, for the discovery in 1934 by Irene and Frederic Joliot-Curie of artificial radioactivity. A few months after this discovery, Marie Curie died as a result of leukaemia caused by exposure to radiation. She had often carried test tubes containing radioactive isotopes in her pocket, remarking on the pretty blue-green light they gave off.
Her contribution to physics had been immense, not only in her own work, the importance of which had been demonstrated by her two Nobel Prizes, but because of her influence on subsequent generations of nuclear physicists and chemists.