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剑桥雅思9Test4阅读Passage3原文翻译 The Development of Museums 博物馆 […]

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剑桥雅思9Test4阅读Passage3原文翻译 The Development of Museums 博物馆的发展

剑桥雅思9阅读第四套题目第三篇文章的主题为博物馆的发展。文章一共6段,分别介绍了正在改变的博物馆的功能,人们对博物馆变化的态度,自然历史呈现方式的发展,博物馆负责任所面临的商业压力,博物馆对展品进行阐释的必要性,以及展品完好程度给人们认识所造成的偏差。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及对应的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思9 test 4 passage 3 博物馆的发展

剑桥雅思9Test4阅读Passage3答案解析 The Development of Museums 博物馆的发展

剑桥雅思9 Test4 Passage3阅读原文翻译

段落A

The conviction that historical relics provide infallible testimony about the past is rooted in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when science was regarded as objective and value free. As one writer observes: ‘Although it is now evident that artefacts are as easily altered as chronicles, public faith in their veracity endures: a tangible relic seems ipso facto real.’ Such conviction was, until recently, reflected in museum displays. Museums used to look – and some still do – much like storage rooms of objects packed together in showcases: good for scholars who wanted to study the subtle differences in design, but not for the ordinary visitor, to whom it all looked alike. Similarly, the information accompanying the objects often made little sense to the lay visitor. The content and format of explanations dated back to a time when the museum was the exclusive domain of the scientific researcher.

历史遗迹提供了有关过去的可靠证明,这一信念源于19世纪和20世纪初。当时科学被视为是客观和价值中立的。正如一位作家所观察到的:“现在,如下事实十分明显,人工制品像编年史一样容易被改变,但是公众对它们的真实性的信念仍然存在:有形的文物似乎确实是真实的”。直到最近,这样的信念都可以从博物馆的展示里得到反映。博物馆过去-有些还在-看起来就像是将物品存放在展示柜中的储藏室一样:对想要研究设计上细微差别的学者非常有用,但不适用于普通游客。在他们看来,所有东西看起来都很像。同样,物品所附带的信息对游客来说意义不大。这种阐释的内容和形式可以追溯到博物馆作为科学研究者专有领域的时期。

段落B

Recently, however, attitudes towards history and the way it should be presented have altered. The key word in heritage display is now ‘experience’, the more exciting the better and if possible, involving all the senses. Good examples of this approach in the UK are the Jorvik Center in York; the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television in Bradford; and the Imperial War Museum in London. In the US the trend emerged much earlier: Williamsburg has been a prototype for many heritage developments in other parts of the world. No one can predict where the process will end. On so-called heritage sites the re-enactment of historical events is increasingly popular, and computers will soon provide virtual reality experiences, which will present visitors with a vivid image of the period of their choice, in which they themselves can act as if part of the historical environment. Such developments have been criticized as an intolerable vulgarization, but the success of many historical theme parks and similar locations suggests that the majority of the public does not share this opinion.

然而,近来,人们对历史及其呈现方式的态度发生了变化。现在文物展示的关键词是“体验” ,越令人兴奋越好。如果可能的话,最好文章来自老烤鸭雅思涉及所有的感官。在英国,这种方法优秀案例有位于约克的约尔维克中心,位于布拉德福德的国家摄影、电影和电视博物馆;以及位于伦敦的帝国战争博物馆。在美国,这种趋势出现得更早:威廉斯堡(Williamsburg)是世界其他地区许多遗产发展的原型。没有人能够预测这一变化过程将在哪里结束。在所谓的历史遗迹上,重演历史事件变得越来越流行,计算机很快能够提供虚拟现实的体验。这将为游客呈现他们所选择的时期的生动图景。在此过程中他们仿佛置身于历史环境中一样。这种发展被一些人批评为令人无法忍受的庸俗化。但是许多历史主题公园和类似地点的成功表明,大多数公众不同意这种观点。

段落C

In a related development, the sharp distinction between museum and heritage sites on the one hand, and theme parks on the other, is gradually evaporating. They already borrow ideas and concepts from one another. For example, museums have adopted story lines for exhibitions, sites have accepted ‘theming’ as a relevant tool, and theme parks are moving towards more authenticity and research-based presentations. In zoos, animals are no longer kept in cages, but in great spaces, either in the open air or in enormous greenhouses, such as the jungle and desert environments in Burgers’ Zoo in Holland. This particular trend is regarded as one of the major developments in the presentation of natural history in the twentieth century.

在相关的发展过程中,博物馆和文物古迹与主题公园之间的鲜明区分正在逐渐消失。他们相互借鉴了彼此的思想和观念。例如,博物馆采用故事情节来进行展览,场所将“主题”作为相关工具。而主题公园则正朝着更具真实性和以研究为基础的展示的方向发展。在动物园,动物不再被关在笼子里,而是在巨大的空间中活动,要么是露天场所,要么是大型的温室,如荷兰Burgers动物园的丛林和沙漠环境。这种特殊的趋势被认为是二十世纪自然历史呈现的主要发展之一。

段落D

Theme parks are undergoing other changes, too, as they try to present more serious social and cultural issues, and move away from fantasy. This development is a response to market forces and, although museums and heritage sites have a special, rather distinct, role to fulfil, they are also operating in a very competitive environments, where visitors make choices on how and where to spend their free time. Heritage and museum experts do not have to invent stories and recreate historical environments to attract their visitors: their assets are already in place. However, exhibits must be both based on artefacts and facts as we know them, and attractively presented. Those who are professionally engaged in the art of interpreting history are thus in a difficult position, as they must steer a narrow course between the demands of ‘evidence’ and ‘attractiveness’, especially given the increasing need in the heritage industry for income-generating activities.

主题公园也正在经历其他变化。它们试图呈现更严肃的社会和文化问题,并摆脱幻想。这种发展是对市场力量的回应。尽管博物馆和遗址需要履行十分特殊的职责,但它们在竞争非常激烈的环境中运作。游客可以选择如何以及在哪里度过闲暇时光。遗址和博物馆专家不必发明故事或重塑历史环境来吸引游客:他们的资本已经到位。但是,展示必须建立在物品本身以及我们所认识他们的基础上,同时又必须具有吸引力。因此,那些专业从事历史阐释艺术的人处于一种左右为难的境地,因为他们必须在“证据”和“吸引力”的要求之间寻找狭窄的路径,特别是考虑到遗产行业越来越需要可以创收的活动。

段落E

It could be claimed that in order to make everything in heritage more ‘real’, historical accuracy must be increasingly altered. For example, Pithecanthropus erectus is depicted in an Indonesian museum with Malay facial features, because this corresponds to public perceptions. Similarly, in the Museum of Natural History in Washington, Neanderthal man is shown making a dominant gesture to his wife. Such presentations tell us more about contemporary perceptions of the world than about our ancestors. There is one compensation, however, for the professionals who make these interpretations: if they did not provide the interpretation, visitors would do it for themselves, based on their own ideas, misconceptions and prejudices. And no matter how exciting the result, it would contain a lot more bias than the presentations provided by experts.

可以说,为了使遗迹中的一切都更加“真实” ,我们必须对历史准确性做出越来越多的改变。例如,印度尼西亚博物馆中的直立猿人拥有马来人的面部特征,就呼应了公众的观念。同样,在华盛顿的自然历史博物馆中,被展示的尼安德特人正在对妻子做出主导手势。这样的展现告诉我们的更多的是关于世界的当代看法,而非有关我们祖先的事情。但是,进行这种解释的专业人员可以得到一种心理安慰:如果他们不提供这种解释,那么游客就会根据自己的想法,误解和偏见来自己编造。而且,无论结果多么令人兴奋,它所包含的偏见都比专家提供的报告要多得多。

段落F

Human bias is inevitable, but another source of bias in the representation of history has to do with the transitory nature of the materials themselves. The simple fact is that not everything from history survives the historical process. Castles, palaces and cathedrals have a longer lifespan than the dwellings of ordinary people. The same applies to the furnishings and other contents of the premises. In a town like Leyden in Holland, which in the seventeenth century was occupied by approximately the same number of inhabitants as today, people lived within the walled town, an area more than five times smaller than modern Leyden. In most of the houses several families lived together in circumstances beyond our imagination. Yet in museums, fine period rooms give only an image of the lifestyle of the upper class of that era. No wonder that people who stroll around exhibitions are filled with nostalgia; the evidence in museums indicates that life was so much better in the past. This notion is induced by the bias in its representation in museums and heritage centers.

人类的偏见是不可避免的,但是历史展现的另一个偏见根源与材料本身的暂时性有关。一个简单的事实是,历史中并非所有的物品都能在历史进程中存留下来。城堡,宫殿和大教堂的寿命比老百姓的住所更长。房屋家具和其他物品也是如此。在像荷兰莱顿这样17世纪的居民数量与今天几乎相同的小镇中,人们所居住被围墙环绕的城镇面积还不到今天的五分之一。在大多数房屋里,几个家庭一起生活在我们无法想象的环境中。然而,在博物馆中,精美的​​房间只能提供那个时代上层社会生活方式的图景。难怪逛展览的人充满了怀旧之情。博物馆中的证据表明,过去的生活好多了。这种观念正是由博物馆和遗产在展示中存​​在的偏差而引起的。

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剑桥雅思9Test4阅读Passage3原文翻译 The Development of Museums:等您坐沙发呢!

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