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剑桥雅思10Test1阅读Passage2原文翻译 Gifted children and learning  […]

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剑桥雅思10Test1阅读Passage2原文翻译 Gifted children and learning 天才儿童与学习

剑桥雅思10阅读第一套题目第二篇文章的主题为天才儿童与学习。文章分为6段,分别介绍了儿童智力的测试方法,如果适当的学习方法促进学习,高成就者善于使用学习策略,过多知道会影响儿童的自主性,一些特质对专业领域的学习作用很大,以及情绪对学习的影响等。下面是具体题每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及对应的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思10 test 2 passage 2 高智商儿童与学习

剑桥雅思10Test2阅读Passage2答案解析 Gifted children and learning 天才儿童与学习

剑桥雅思10 Test2 Passage2阅读原文翻译

段落A

Internationally, ‘giftedness’ is most frequently determined by a score on a general intelligence test, known as an IQ test, which is above a chosen cutoff point, usually at around the top 2-5%. Children’s educational environment contributes to the IQ score and the way intelligence is used. For example, a very close positive relationship was found when children’s IQ scores were compared with their home educational provision (Freeman, 2010). The higher the children’s IQ scores, especially over IQ 130, the better the quality of their educational backup, measured in terms of reported verbal interactions with parents, number of books and activities in their home etc. Because IQ tests are decidedly influenced by what the child has learned, they are to some extent measures of current achievement based on age-norms; that is, how well the children have learned to manipulate their knowledge and know-how within the terms of the test. The vocabulary aspect, for example, is dependent on having heard those words. But IQ tests can neither identify the processes of learning and thinking nor predict creativity.

国际上,“天才”通常由一般智商测验(即智商测验)的分数来确定。他们的分数高于选定的分界点,通常在最高的2-5%左右。儿童的教育环境有助于提高智商和智力的使用方式。例如,研究发现孩子的智商与其家庭教育存在十分紧密的正向联系(Freeman,2010)。儿童智商越高,尤其是在130以上的时候,其家庭教育背景的质量越好。该质量由家庭中与父母之间的语言互动,图书数量,以及各项活动决定。因为智商测试一定会受到孩子所学知识的影响,所以它们在某种程度上是根据年龄状况衡量当前成就的标准;也就是说,孩子们在测试条件下能够多好的利用所学到的知识和道理。例如,词汇方面就取决于是否听到过这些单词。但是智商测试既不能识别学习和思考的过程,也不能预测创造力。

段落B

Excellence does not emerge without appropriate help. To reach an exceptionally high standard in any area very able children need the means to learn, which includes material to work with and focused challenging tuition -and the encouragement to follow their dream. There appears to be a qualitative difference in the way the intellectually highly able think, compared with more average-ability or older pupils, for whom external regulation by the teacher often compensates for lack of internal regulation. To be at their most effective in their self-regulation, all children can be helped to identify their own ways of learning – metacognition – which will include strategies of planning, monitoring, evaluation, and choice of what to learn. Emotional awareness is also part of metacognition, so children should be helped to be aware of their feelings around the area to be learned, feelings of curiosity or confidence, for example.

没有适当的帮助,卓越就不会出现。要在任何领域达到极高的水平,即便是非常有能力的孩子也需要学习方法,这包括练习材料文章来自老烤鸭雅思和集中的有挑战的教学,以及对他们追求梦想的鼓励。与能力一般或者年龄较大的学生相比,智力较高的人的思维方式似乎存在质的差异。对于前者来说,老师所施加的外部管理会弥补内在管理的缺失。为了最有效地进行自我管理,可以帮助所有孩子寻找他们自己的学习方式(元认知),这包括计划、监督、评价以及选择学习内容的策略。情绪意识也是元认知的一部分。所以应该帮助儿童了解他们在学习领域中的感受,如好奇心或者自信心等。

段落C

High achievers have been found to use self-regulatory learning strategies more often and more effectively than lower achievers, and are better able to transfer these strategies to deal with unfamiliar tasks. This happens to such a high degree in some children that they appear to be demonstrating talent in particular areas. Overviewing research on the thinking process of highly able children, (Shore and Kanevsky, 1993) put the instructor’s problem succinctly: ‘If they [the gifted] merely think more quickly, then we need only teach more quickly. If they merely make fewer errors, then we can shorten the practice’. But of course, this is not entirely the case; adjustments have to be made in methods of learning and teaching, to take account of the many ways individuals think.

研究发现,高成就者与低成就者相比,会更频繁、更有效地使用自我调节的学习策略,并能够更好地将这些策略应用于处理不熟悉的任务。在一些儿童中,这种情况出现的程度很高,以至于他们似乎在特定的领域展现出天赋。对高能儿童思维过程研究的概述将老师的问题简明的表述了出来,“如果有天赋的孩子只是思考的更快,那么我们也只需要教的更快就好。如果他们只是更少犯错,那么我们就可以缩短练习的时间”。但当然,事实并非完全如此。考虑到个体思维的多种方式,学习和教学方法必须有所调整。

段落D

Yet in order to learn by themselves, the gifted do need some support from their teachers. Conversely, teachers who have a tendency to ‘overdirect’ can diminish their gifted pupils’ learning autonomy. Although ‘spoon-feeding’, can produce extremely high examination results, these are not always followed by equally impressive life successes. Too much dependence on the teacher risks loss of autonomy and motivation to discover. However, when teachers help pupils to reflect on their own learning and thinking activities, they increase their pupils’ self-regulation. For a young child, it may be just the simple question ‘What have you learned today?’ which helps them to recognise what they are doing. Given that a fundamental goal of education is to transfer the control of learning from teachers to pupils, improving pupils’ learning to learn techniques should be a major outcome of the school experience, especially for the highly competent. There are quite a number of new methods which can help, such as child-initiated learning, ability-peer tutoring, etc. Such practices have been found to be particularly useful for bright children from deprived areas.

然而,即便是自学,有天赋的人也仍然需要一些来自老师的帮助。相反,喜欢过度指导的老师会消除他们有天赋的学生的学习自主性。虽然填鸭式教育能够产生极高的考试分数,但它们并非总是伴随着同样令人印象深刻的人生成功。对老师的过度依赖可能会有失去自主和发现动力的风险。但是,当老师帮助学生反思自己的学习和思考活动时,他们会增强学生的自我调节能力。对于年龄尚小的孩子来说,这可能只是一个简单的问题:“你今天学到了什么?” 这有助于他们认识自己在做什么。鉴于教育的基本目标是将学习的控制权从教师转移给学生,提高学生的学习技能应该是学校经历的主要成果,特别是对于能力较强的学生来说。有许多新方法可以提供帮助,例如由孩子发起学习,有能力的同伴进行辅导等。研究发现这种做法对来自贫困地区的聪明孩子特别有用。

段落E

But scientific progress is not all theoretical, knowledge is also vital to outstanding performance: individuals who know a great deal about a specific domain will achieve at a higher level than those who do not (Elshout, 1995). Research with creative scientists by Simonton (1988) brought him to the conclusion that above a certain high level, characteristics such as independence seemed to contribute more to reaching the highest levels of expertise than intellectual skills, due to the great demands of effort and time needed for learning and practice. Creativity in all forms can be seen as expertise mixed with a high level of motivation (Weisberg, 1993).

但是,科学进步并不全是理论上的,知识对于出色的表现也至关重要:对某个特定领域了解很多的人比不了解该领域的人取得的成就更高(Elshout ,1995)。Simonton与创新科学家进行的研究让他得出以下结论,在特定水平之上,由于学习和练习所需要的大量时间与精力,诸如独立一类的性格似乎比智力技能更有助于达到专业的最高水平。研究与创新的科学家由西蒙顿(1988年),为他带来了这样的结论:超过一定水平高,等特点,独立性似乎有助于更达不到智力技能专长的最高水平,因为需要时间和精力的巨大需求学习和练习。各种形式的创造力都可以看作是专业与高层次动力的混合。

段落F

To sum up, learning is affected by emotions of both the individual and significant others. Positive emotions facilitate the creative aspects of learning and negative emotions inhibit it. Fear, for example, can limit the development of curiosity, which is a strong force in scientific advance, because it motivates problem-solving behaviour. In Boekaerts’ (1991) review of emotion in the learning of very high IQ and highly achieving children, she found emotional forces in harness. They were not only curious, but often had a strong desire to control their environment, improve their learning efficiency, and increase their own learning resources.

总的来说,学习受到个体与他人的影响。积极情绪促进学习的创造性,而消极情绪则会抑制它例如,恐惧会限制好奇心的发展,而好奇心是科学发展的强大力量,因为它激发解决问题的行为在Boekaerts (1991)对高智商和成就卓越的孩子的学习情绪的回顾中,她发现情绪的力量可以驾驭。他们不仅好奇,而且常常渴望控制环境,提高学习效率并增加自己的学习资源。

剑桥雅思10Test2阅读Passage1原文翻译 Tea and the Industrial Revolution 茶与工业革命

剑桥雅思10Test2阅读Passage3原文翻译 Museums of fine arts and their public 博物馆中艺术品的展示方式

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剑桥雅思10Test1阅读Passage2原文翻译 Gifted children and learning:等您坐沙发呢!

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