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剑桥雅思10Test1阅读Passage3原文翻译 The psychology of innovation […]


剑桥雅思10Test1阅读Passage3原文翻译 The psychology of innovation 创新的心理



雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思10 test 1 passage 3 创新的心理机制

剑桥雅思10Test1阅读Passage3答案解析 The psychology of innovation 创新的心理

剑桥雅思10 Test1 Passage3阅读原文翻译


Innovation is key to business survival, and companies put substantial resources into inspiring employees to develop new ideas. There are, nevertheless, people working in luxurious, state-of-the-art centres designed to stimulate innovation who find that their environment doesn’t make them feel at all creative. And there are those who don’t have a budget, or much space, but who innovate successfully.



For Robert B. Cialdini, Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University, one reason that companies don’t succeed as often as they should is that Innovation starts with recruitment. Research shows that the fit between an employee’s values and a company’s values makes a difference to what contribution they make and whether, two years after they join, they’re still at the company. Studies at Harvard Business School show that, although some individuals may be more creative than others, almost every individual can be creative in the right circumstances.

对于亚利桑那州立大学心理学教授Robert B.Cialdini而言,公司未能获得应有的成功的原因之一在于创新始于招聘。研究表明,员工文章来自老烤鸭雅思价值观与公司价值观之间的契合度会影响他们做出的贡献以及加入两年后是否仍在该公司工作。哈佛商学院的研究表明,尽管某些人可能比其他人更具创造力,但几乎每个人都可以在适当的情况下发挥创造力。


One of the most famous photographs in the story of rock’n’roll emphasises Cialdini’s views. The 1956 picture of singers Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash and Jerry Lee Lewis jamming at a piano in Sun Studios in Memphis tells a hidden story. Sun’s ‘million-dollar quartet’ could have been a quintet. Missing from the picture is Roy Orbison, a greater natural singer than Lewis, Perkins or Cash. Sam Phillips, who owned Sun, wanted to revolutionise popular music with songs that fused black and white music, and country and blues. Presley, Cash, Perkins and Lewis instinctively understood Phillips’s ambition and believed in it. Orbison wasn’t inspired by the goal, and only ever achieved one hit with the Sun label.

一张摇滚故事中最著名的照片印证了Cialdini的观点。这张1956年,歌手Elvis Presley,Carl Perkins,Johnny Cash和Jerry Lee Lewis在孟菲斯Sun Studios的照片讲述了一个隐藏的故事。Sun的“百万美元四重奏”本来可以说是五重奏。照片中缺少的是Roy Orbison,一个比Lewis,Perkins或Cash更有天赋的歌手。拥有Sun的Sam Phillips希望通过融合黑白音乐,乡村音乐和布鲁斯音乐来革新流行音乐。Presley,Cash,Perkins和Lewis本能地理解Phillips的抱负,并对此抱有信心。而Orbison则没有受到这一目标的启发,只在唱片公司进行了一次演出。


The value fit matters, says Cialdini, because innovation is, in part, a process of change, and under that pressure we, as a species, behave differently, ‘When things change, we are hard-wired to play it safe.’ Managers should therefore adopt an approach that appears counterintuitive ­— they should explain what stands to be lost if the company fails to seize a particular opportunity. Studies show that we invariably take more gambles when threatened with a loss than when offered a reward.

Cialdini说,价值观的契合很重要,因为创新在某种程度上是变革的过程,在这种压力下,作为一个物种,我们的行为方式有所不同,“当事情发生变化时,我们本能地想要安全行事。” 因此,管理者应该采用一种看起来违反直觉的方法 -他们应该阐明如果公司未能抓住特定机会将会损失什么。研究表明,在遭受损失威胁时,我们总是会比面对奖励时更多地进行赌博。



Managing innovation is a delicate art. It’s easy for a company to be pulled in conflicting directions as the marketing, product development, and finance departments each get different feedback from different sets of people. And without a system which ensures collaborative exchanges within the company, it’s also easy for small ‘pockets of innovation’ to disappear. Innovation is a contact sport. You can’t brief people just by saying, ‘We’re going in this direction and I’m going to take you with me.’


Cialdini believes that this ‘follow-the-leader syndrome, is dangerous, not least because it encourages bosses to go it alone. ‘It’s been scientifically proven that three people will be better than one at solving problems, even if that one person is the smartest person in the field.’ To prove his point, Cialdini cites an interview with molecular biologist James Watson. Watson, together with Francis Crick, discovered the structure of DNA, the genetic information carrier of all living organisms. ‘When asked how they had cracked the code ahead of an array of highly accomplished rival investigators, he said something that stunned me. He said he and Crick had succeeded because they were aware that they weren’t the most intelligent of the scientists pursuing the answer. The smartest scientist was called Rosalind Franklin who, Watson said, “was so intelligent she rarely sought advice”.’

Cialdini认为,这种“跟随领导综合症”是危险的,不仅仅因为它鼓励老板一意孤行。“科学证明,即使一个人是该领域最聪明的人,三个人在解决问题上也会比一个人更好。” 为了证明他的观点,Cialdini引用了分子生物学家James Watson(詹姆斯·沃森)的采访。沃森与弗朗西斯·克里克(Francis Crick)一起发现了DNA的结构,DNA是所有活着的生物体的遗传信息载体。当被问及他们是如何领先众多高水平的竞争者破解密码时,他说了一些令我震惊的东西。他说,他和克里克之所以成功,是因为他们意识到自己并不是追求答案的最聪明的科学家。沃森说,最聪明的科学家叫罗莎琳德·富兰克林(Rosalind Franklin),“他非常聪明,以至于很少寻求他人的建议”。


Teamwork taps into one of the basic drivers of human behaviour. ‘The principle of social proof is so pervasive that we don’t even recognise it,’ says Cialdini. ‘If your project is being resisted, for example, by a group of veteran employees, ask another old-timer to speak up for it.’ Cialdini is not alone in advocating this strategy. Research shows that peer power, used horizontally not vertically, is much more powerful than any boss’s speech.

团队合作是人类行为的基本动力之一。Cialdini说:“社会认同的原则是如此普遍,以至于我们甚至都没有意识到。” “例如,如果你的项目遭到一群资深员工的抵制,那就争取另一位老员工的支持。” 并非只有Cialdini提倡这种策略。研究表明,水平而非垂直使用的同事权力比任何老板的讲话都强大得多。


Writing, visualising and prototyping can stimulate the flow of new ideas. Cialdini cites scores of research papers and historical events that prove that even something as simple as writing deepens every individual’s engagement in the project. It is, he says, the reason why all those competitions on breakfast cereal packets encouraged us to write in saying, in no more than 10 words: ‘I like Kellogg’s Corn Flakes because….’ The very act of writing makes us more likely to believe it.



Authority doesn’t have to inhibit innovation but it often does. The wrong kind of leadership will lead to what Cialdini calls ‘captainitis, the regrettable tendency of team members to opt out of team responsibilities that are properly theirs’. He calls it captainitis because, he says, ‘crew members of multipilot aircraft exhibit a sometimes deadly passivity when the flight captain makes a clearly wrong-headed decision’. This behaviour is not, he says, unique to air travel, but can happen in any workplace where the leader is overbearing.



At the other end of the scale is the 1980s Memphis design collective, a group of young designers for whom ‘the only rule was that there were no rules’. This environment encouraged a free interchange of ideas, which led to more creativity with form, function, colour and materials that revolutionised attitudes to furniture design.

与之相反的情况是20世纪80年代孟菲斯的设计团队。这是一群年轻的设计师,他们“唯一的规则是没有规则” 。这种环境鼓励思想的自由交流,从而在形式,功能,颜色和材料方面带来了更多的创造性,进而彻底改变了家具设计的理念。


Many theorists believe the ideal boss should lead from behind, taking pride in collective accomplishment and giving credit where it is due. Cialdini says: ‘Leaders should encourage everyone to contribute and simultaneously assure all concerned that every recommendation is important to making the right decision and will be given full attention.’ The frustrating thing about innovation is that there are many approaches, but no magic formula. However, a manager who wants to create a truly innovative culture can make their job a lot easier by recognising these psychological realities.

许多理论家认为,理想的老板应该在幕后领导,以集体成就为荣,并在适当的时候给予赞扬。Cialdini说:“领导应鼓励每个人做出贡献,同时向所有有关方面保证,每一项建议对于做出正确决定都是重要的,并将得到充分重视。” 令人沮丧的是,创新有很多方法,但不存在神奇的公式。然而,通过认识到这些心理层面的事实,想要创造真正创新文化的经理可以让自己的工作变得轻松许多。

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