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剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage1原文翻译 The Context, Meaning and Scop […]

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剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage1原文翻译 The Context, Meaning and Scope of Tourism 旅游业

剑桥雅思10阅读第三套题目第一篇文章的主题为旅游业当下的情况与发展前景。文章一共5段,分别介绍了旅游的历史,大众旅游业的发展,旅游业在经济和社会方面的重要性,界定旅游业影响力的困难所在,以及它在世界范围内的影响。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思10 test 3 passage 1 旅游业

剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage1答案解析 The Context, Meaning and Scope of Tourism 旅游业

剑桥雅思10 Test3 Passage1阅读原文翻译

段落A

Travel has existed since the beginning of time, when primitive man set out, often traversing great distances in search of game, which provided the food and clothing necessary for his survival. Throughout the course of history, people have travelled for purposes of trade, religious conviction, economic gain, war, migration and other equally compelling motivations. In the Roman era, wealthy aristocrats and high government officials also travelled for pleasure. Seaside resorts located at Pompeii and Herculaneum afforded citizens the opportunity to escape to their vacation villas in order to avoid the summer heat of Rome. Travel, except during the Dark Ages, has continued to grow and, throughout recorded history, has played a vital role in the development of civilisations and their economies.

旅游自古就有。当时原始人动身走过漫漫长路搜寻生存所必须的,能够为他们提供食物和衣物的猎物。历史长河之中,人们出于贸易、宗教信仰、经历利益、战争、移民和其他同样引人注目的因素而出行。在罗马时代,富裕的贵族和高级政府官员也乐在其中。位于庞贝和赫库兰尼姆的海滨度假胜地为市民提供休闲场所,从而避免罗马夏季的炎热。 除黑暗时代之外,旅行持续增长。在有记录的历史中,旅行对文明及其经济的发展起到至关重要的作用。

段落B

Tourism in the mass form as we know it today is a distinctly twentieth-century phenomenon. Historians suggest that the advent of mass tourism began in England during the industrial revolution with the rise of the middle class and the availability of relatively inexpensive transportation. The creation of the commercial airline industry following the Second World War and the subsequent development of the jet aircraft in the 1950s signalled the rapid growth and expansion of international travel. This growth led to the development of a major new industry: tourism. In turn, international tourism became the concern of a number of world governments since it not only provided new employment opportunities but also produced a means of earning foreign exchange.

我们今天所熟知的大众旅游是一种二十世纪才有的现象。历史学家认为,随着中产阶级的崛起文章来自老烤鸭雅思和相对便宜的交通的普及,大众旅游业开始在工业革命期间的英格兰出现。第二次世界大战之后商用航空产业的出现和随后20世纪50年代喷气式飞机的发明标志着国际旅游的迅速增长和扩张。这一增长导致了一种全新支柱产业的出现:旅游业。反过来,因为国际旅游业不仅提供新的就业机会,而且创造出一条赚取外汇的路径,它也成为众多国家政府所关注的问题。

段落C  

Tourism today has grown significantly in both economic and social importance. In most industrialised countries over the past few years the fastest growth has been seen in the area of services. One of the largest segments of the service industry, although largely unrecognised as an entity in some of these countries, is travel and tourism. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (1992), Travel and tourism is the largest industry in the world on virtually any economic measure including value-added capital investment, employment and tax contributions’. In 1992, the industry’s gross output was estimated to be $3.5 trillion, over 12 per cent of all consumer spending. The travel and tourism industry is the world’s largest employer with almost 130 million jobs, or almost 7 percent of all employees. This industry is the world’s leading industrial contributor, producing over 6 per cent of the world’s gross national product and accounting for capital investment in excess of $422 billion in direct, indirect and personal taxes cadi year. Thus, tourism has a profound impact both on the world economy and, because of the educative effect of travel and the effects on employment, on society itself.

当今旅游业在经济和社会意义上都取得了显著增长。在过去的几年中,大多数工业化国家增长速度最快的就是服务业。虽然在其中一些国家并未作为实体行业而受到认可,但服务业最大的组成部分之一正是旅游观光行业。根据世界旅行和旅游理事会(1992)的数据,无论以任何经济指标衡量(包括增值资本投资,就业和税收贡献等),旅游观光业都是世界上最大的产业。1992年,该行业的总产值估计为3.5万亿美元,占所有消费者支出的12%以上。旅游观光业是世界上最大的雇主,提供近1.3亿个工作岗位,约占所有雇员的7%。这个行业还是世界领先的工业产值贡献者,占世界国民生产总值的6%以上。每年在直接,间接和个人税收中,其资本投资就超过4220亿美元。因此,旅游业不仅对世界经济拥有深远影响,而且由于旅行的教育作用和对就业的影响,它对社会本身也有举足轻重的意义。

段落D  

However, the major problems of the travel and tourism industry that have hidden, or obscured, its economic impact are the diversity and fragmentation of the industry itself. The travel industry includes: hotels, motels and other types of accommodation; restaurants and other food services; transportation services and facilities; amusements, attractions and other leisure facilities; gift shops and a large number of other enterprises. Since many of these businesses also serve local residents, the impact of spending by visitors can easily be overlooked or underestimated. In addition, Meis (1992) points out that the tourism industry involves concepts that have remained amorphous to both analysts and decision makers. Moreover, in all nations this problem has made it difficult for the industry to develop any type of reliable or credible tourism information base in order to estimate the contribution it makes to regional, national and global economics. However, the nature of this very diversity makes travel and tourism ideal vehicles for economic development in a wide variety of countries, regions or communities.

然而,旅游观光业本身多样化和分散性的问题掩盖或模糊了其经济影响力。旅游产业包括:酒店,汽车旅馆和其他类型的住宿;餐厅和其他食品服务;交通运输服务和设施;娱乐、景点和其他休闲设施;礼品店等众多企业。由于这些企业中的还有许多为当地居民服务,因此游客的消费影响很容易被忽视或低估。此外,Meis(1992)指出,旅游产业所涉及到的一些概念无论是对分析师还是决策者来说都仍然十分模糊。在所有国家中,这一问题使得该产业很难开发出任何类型的可靠或可信的旅游信息数据库,以评估它对地区、国家,乃至全球经济的贡献。但是,正是这一多样性的本质使得旅游业成为众多国家、地区和社区进行经济发展的理想载体。

段落E  

Once the exclusive province of the wealthy, travel and tourism have become an institutionalised way of life for most of the population. In fact, McIntosh and Goeldner (1990) suggest that tourism has become the largest commodity in international trade for many nations and, for a significant number of other countries, it ranks second or third. For example, tourism is the major source of income in Bermuda, Greece, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and most Caribbean countries. In addition, Hawkins and Ritchie, quoting from data published by the American Express Company, suggest that the travel and tourism industry is the number one ranked employer in the Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, France, (the former) West Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States. However, because of problems of definition, which directly affect statistical measurement, it is not possible with any degree of certainty to provide precise, valid or reliable data about the extent of world-wide tourism participation or its economic impact. In many cases, similar difficulties arise when attempts are made to measure domestic tourism.

虽然旅游曾经是富裕阶层的专属领域,但它现在已经成为大多数人习以为常的生活方式。McIntosh和Goeldner(1990)指出,实际上,旅游业已成为许多国家国际贸易中最大的商品,并在许多其他国家中排名第二或第三。例如,旅游是百慕大、希腊、意大利、西班牙、瑞士和大多数加勒比海国家的主要收入来源。此外,Hawkins和Ritchie引用美国运通公司(American Express Company)公布的数据称,旅游业是巴哈马、巴西、加拿大、法国、西德、香港、意大利、牙买加、日本、新加坡、英国和美国提供就业岗位最多的行业。但是,由于定义问题直接影响统计方法,因此无法在任何程度上确切给出世界范围内旅游业参与度及其经济影响的准确、有效或可靠数据。许多情况下,试图衡量国内旅游业时也会遇到类似的困难。  

剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage2原文翻译 Autumn leaves 秋叶变红

剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage3原文翻译 Beyond the blue horizon 航海探索

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