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剑桥雅思8Test2阅读Passage2原文翻译 the little ice age 小冰期/小冰河时代 剑 […]

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剑桥雅思8Test2阅读Passage2原文翻译 the little ice age 小冰期/小冰河时代

剑桥雅思8阅读第二套题目第二篇文章的主题为小冰期/小冰河时代。文章共分为6段,分别介绍了气候变化的历史和人类的应对,小冰期的定义和作用,确定过去气候条件的方法,公元900年至1200年间的气候状况,小冰期对欧洲的影响,以及人类活动对气候的影响。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思8 test 2 passage 2 小冰川期 

剑桥雅思8Test2阅读Passage2答案解析 the little ice age 小冰期/小冰河时代

剑桥雅思8 Test2 Passage2阅读原文翻译

A部分

This book will provide a detailed examination of the Little Ice Age and other climatic shifts, but, before I embark on that, let me provide a historical context. We tend to think of climate – as opposed to weather – as something unchanging, yet humanity has been at the mercy of climate change for its entire existence, with at least eight glacial episodes in the past 730, 000 years. Our ancestors adapted to the universal but irregular global warming since the end of the last great Ice Age, around 10, 000years ago, with dazzling opportunism. They developed strategies for surviving harsh drought cycles, decades of heavy rainfall or unaccustomed cold; adopted agriculture and stock-raising, which revolutionised human life; and founded the world’s first pre-industrial civilisations in Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Americas. But the price of sudden climate change, in famine, disease and suffering, was often high.

本书将详细探讨小冰河时代和其他气候变化,但在我着手探讨之前,请让我先描述一下历史背景。我们倾向于将气候(与天气相对)视为不变的东西,但是人类在整个生存过程中一直受气候变化的支配。在过去的730000年中至少发生了八次冰川事件。自大约十万年前上一个大冰河时代结束以来,我们的祖先以令人眼花缭乱的机会主义适应了普遍但不规则的全球变暖。他们制定了应对严酷干旱,数十年暴雨或令人不适的严寒的策略;采用农业和畜牧业彻底改变了人类生活;并在埃及,美索不达米亚和美洲建立了世界上第一批前工业化文明 。但突然的气候变化所造成的代价(饥荒,疾病和苦难)往往很高。

B部分

The Little Ice Age lasted from roughly 1300 until the middle of the nineteenth century. Only two centuries ago, Europe experienced a cycle of bitterly cold winters; mountain glaciers in the Swiss Alps were the lowest in recorded memory, and pack ice surrounded Iceland for much of the year. The climatic events of the Little Ice Age did more than help shape the modern world. They are the deeply important context for the current unprecedented global warming. The Little Ice Age was far from a deep freeze, however; rather an irregular seesaw of rapid climatic shifts, few lasting more than a quarter-century, driven by complex and still little understood interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean. The seesaw brought cycles of intensely cold winters and easterly winds, then switched abruptly to years of heavy spring and early summer rains, mild winters, and frequent Atlantic storms, or to periods of droughts, light northeasterly winds, and summer heat waves.

小冰河时代大约从1300持续到19 世纪中叶。仅仅两个世纪前,欧洲经历了严寒的冬季。瑞士阿尔卑斯山的高山冰川处于有记录以来的最低点,而冰块文章来自老烤鸭雅思在一年中的大部分时间里都包围着冰岛。小冰河时代的气候事件不仅仅帮助塑造了现代世界。它们还是当前史无前例的全球变暖的极为重要的背景。然而,小冰河世纪并非极度寒冷,而是一种不规则的、交互的迅速气候变化。它们的持续时间很少超过四分之一世纪,由大气与海洋之间复杂而我们又知之甚少的相互作用驱动。它带来周期性的寒冷冬季和东风,然后突然转变为多年的漫长春季,初夏降雨,温和冬季和频繁的大西洋风暴,或者转为干旱,东北风和夏季热浪。

C部分

Reconstructing the climate changes of the past is extremely difficult, because systematic weather observations began only a few centuries ago, in Europe and North America. Records from India and tropical Africa are even more recent. For the time before records began, we have only ‘proxy records’ reconstructed largely from tree rings and ice cores, supplemented by a few incomplete written accounts. We now have hundreds of tree-ring records from throughout the northern hemisphere, and many from south of the equator, too, amplified with a growing body of temperature data from ice cores drilled in Antarctica, Greenland, the Peruvian Andes, and other locations. We are close to a knowledge of annual summer and winter temperature variations over much of the northern hemisphere going back 600 years.

重构过去的气候变化极为困难,因为系统的天气观测仅在几个世纪前才在欧洲和北美开始。来自印度和热带非洲的记录就更近了。在记录开始之前的时间里,我们仅能从年轮和冰芯中重建“代理记录”,并辅以一些不完整的书面记录。现在,我们有来自整个北半球的数百个年轮记录,而且也有来自赤道以南的许多年轮记录。它们与来自南极,格陵兰,秘鲁安第斯山脉和其他地区的冰芯温度数据一起增长。我们就快知道北半球过去600年间每年夏季和冬季的温度变化。

D部分

This book is a narrative history of climatic shifts during the past ten centuries, and some of the ways in which people in Europe adapted to them. Part One describes the Medieval Warm Period, roughly 900 to 1200. During these three centuries, Norse voyagers from Northern Europe explored northern seas, settled Greenland, and visited North America. It was not a time of uniform warmth, for then, as always since the Great Ice Age, there were constant shifts in rainfall and temperature. Mean European temperatures were about the same as today, perhaps slightly cooler.

这本书是过去十个世纪气候变化与欧洲人适应气候变化方法的叙事历史。第一部分描述了从大约900至1200年的中世纪温暖时期。在这三个世纪中,来自北欧的挪威航海家们探索了北海,在格陵兰定居,并访问了北美。那不是一个一直温暖的时期。自从大冰河世纪以来,降雨量和温度一直在不断变化。欧洲平均温度与今天大致相同,可能略低。

E部分

It is known that the Little Ice Age cooling began in Greenland and the Arctic in about 1200. As the Arctic ice pack spread southward, Norse voyages to the west were rerouted into the open Atlantic, then ended altogether. Storminess increased in the North Atlantic and North Sea. Colder, much wetter weather descended on Europe between 1315 and 1319, when thousands perished in a continent-wide famine. By 1400, the weather had become decidedly more unpredictable and stormier, with sudden shifts and lower temperatures that culminated in the cold decades of the late sixteenth century. Fish were a vital commodity in growing towns and cities, where food supplies were a constant concern. Dried cod and herring were already the staples of the European fish trade, but changes in water temperatures forced fishing fleets to work further offshore. The Basques, Dutch, and English developed the first offshore fishing boats adapted to a colder and stormier Atlantic. A gradual agricultural revolution in northern Europe stemmed from concerns over food supplies at a time of rising populations. The revolution involved intensive commercial farming and the growing of animal fodder on land not previously used for crops. The increased productivity from farmland made some countries self-sufficient in grain and livestock and offered effective protection against famine.

据了解,小冰期大约于1200年在格陵兰岛和北极开始。随着北极冰块向南蔓延,从挪威向西的航线已改道到开放的大西洋,随后彻底终结。北大西洋和北海的暴风雨增加。1315年至1319年间,欧洲出现了更冷,更潮湿的天气,成千上万的人死于整个大洲的饥荒。到1400年,天气变得更加不可预测、更加狂暴,突然的变化和更低的温度最终导致了16世纪后期的严寒。在不断增长的城镇和城市中,鱼是至关重要的商品,那里的粮食供应一直是人们关注的问题。鳕鱼和鲱鱼干已经成为欧洲鱼类贸易的主流,但是水温的变化迫使捕捞船队进一步远离海岸。巴斯克人,荷兰人和英国人发明了第一批能够适应更为寒冷和更为狂暴的大西洋的近海渔船。在欧洲北部的渐进农业革命起源于人们在人口增长时期对粮食供应的担心。革命涉及集约化商业耕作,以及在以前不用于种植农作物的土地上种植动物饲料。农田生产力的提高使一些国家的粮食和牲畜自给自足,并为对抗饥荒提供了有效的保护手段。

F部分

Global temperatures began to rise slowly after 1850, with the beginning of the Modern Warm Period. There was a vast migration from Europe by land-hungry farmers and others, to which the famine caused by the Irish potato blight contributed, to North America, Australia, New Zealand, and southern Africa. Millions of hectares of forest and woodland fell before the newcomers’ axes between 1850 and 1890, as intensive European farming methods expanded across the world. The unprecedented land clearance released vast quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, triggering for the first time humanly caused global warming. Temperatures climbed more rapidly in the twentieth century as the use of fossil fuels proliferated and greenhouse gas levels continued to soar. The rise has been even steeper since the early 1980s. The Little Ice Age has given way to a new climatic regime, marked by prolonged and steady warming. At the same time, extreme weather events like Category 5 hurricanes are becoming more frequent.

随着现代温暖时期的开始,全球温度于1850年之后开始缓慢上升。由于爱尔兰马铃薯疫病所造成的饥荒,渴望土地的农民和其他人从欧洲大量迁徙到北美,澳大利亚,新西兰和非洲南部。在1850年至1890年之间,随着集约化的欧洲耕种方法在世界范围内传播,数百万公顷的森林和林地倒在了新移民的斧子之下。前所未有的土地清理工作将大量二氧化碳释放到大气中,这是人类首次造成全球变暖。随着二十世纪化石燃料使用的激增和温室气体水平的持续飙升,温度上升地更快。自20世纪80年代初以来,上升幅度甚至更大。小冰河时代已经让位于一种新的气候体制,其特征是持续不断而稳定的变暖。同时,诸如5类飓风之类的极端天气事件变得越来越频繁。

剑桥雅思8Test2阅读Passage1原文翻译 sheet glass manufacture: the float process 玻璃制造

剑桥雅思8Test2阅读Passage3原文翻译 The meaning and power of smell 气味的意义与力量

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