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剑桥雅思8Test4阅读Passage2原文翻译 Biological control of pests 生物 […]

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剑桥雅思8Test4阅读Passage2原文翻译 Biological control of pests 生物防虫法

剑桥雅思8阅读第四套题目第二篇文章的主题为生物防虫法。文章共有10段,大体可以分为两部分。前半部分介绍现有杀虫剂的缺点,如害虫的抗药性,成分有害,引发疾病等;后半部分介绍生物防虫的优势及具体的例子。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇与具体题目的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思8 test 4 passage 2 生物防虫法

剑桥雅思8Test4阅读Passage2答案解析 Biological control of pests 害虫的生物控制

剑桥雅思8 Test4 Passage2阅读原文翻译

第1段

The continuous and reckless use of synthetic chemicals for the control of pests which pose a threat to agricultural crops and human health is proving to be counter-productive. Apart from engendering widespread ecological disorders, pesticides have contributed to the emergence of a new breed of chemical-resistant, highly lethal superbugs.

事实证明,持续不顾后果地使用合成化学品控制有害生物对农作物和人类健康构成威胁,并且会适得其反。除引起广泛的生态失调外,农药还促成具有抗药性和高致死性的超级害虫的诞生。

第2段

According to a recent study by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), more than 300species of agricultural pests have developed resistance to a wide range of potent chemicals. Not to be left behind are the disease-spreading pests, about 100 species of which have become immune to a variety of insecticides now in use.

根据粮食及农业组织(FAO)的最新研究,超过300种农业文章来自老烤鸭雅思害虫对多种强效化学物质产生了抗药性。更不用说传播疾病的害虫,其中约有100种已对目前使用的各种杀虫剂免疫。

第3段

One glaring disadvantage of pesticides’ application is that, while destroying harmful pests, they also wipe out many useful non-targeted organisms, which keep the growth of the pest population in check. This results in what agroecologists call the ‘treadmill syndrome’. Because of their tremendous breeding potential and genetic diversity, many pests are known to withstand synthetic chemicals and bear offspring with built-in resistance to pesticides.

农药施用的一个明显缺点是,在消灭有害生物的同时,它们还消灭了许多有用的非目标生物,从而使有害生物种群的生长受到控制。这导致了农业生态学家所说的“跑步机综合症”。由于害虫具有巨大的繁殖潜力和遗传多样性,许多害虫都能够抵抗合成化学物质并生育对农药具有内在抗性的后代。

第4段

The havoc that the ‘treadmill syndrome’ can bring about is well illustrated by what happened to cotton farmers in Central America. In the early 1940s, basking in the glory of chemical-based intensive agriculture, the farmers avidly took to pesticides as a sure measure to boost crop yield. The insecticide was applied eight times a year in the mid-1940s, rising to 28 in a season in the mid-1950s, following the sudden proliferation of three new varieties of chemical-resistant pests.

“跑步机综合症”可能造成的严重破坏已由中美洲棉农的遭遇充分说明。20世纪40年代初期,在以化学为基础的集约化农业的光辉下,农民们热衷于使用农药作为提高作物产量的可靠措施。20世纪40年代中期,杀虫剂每年施用八次。20世纪50年代,由于三种新的耐化学性害虫突然扩散开来,该数字上升到一个季度施用28次。

第5段

By the mid-1960s, the situation took an alarming turn with the outbreak of four more new pests, necessitating pesticide spraying to such an extent that 50% of the financial outlay on cotton production was accounted for by pesticides. This article is from Laokaoya website. In the early 1970s, the spraying frequently reached 70 times a season as the farmers were pushed to the wall by the invasion of genetically stronger insect species.

到20世纪60年代中期,情况发生了令人震惊的转折,又爆发了4种新的害虫,使得喷洒农药成为必要措施,以致于棉花生产中50%的经济支出都用在了农药上面。20世纪70年代初,由于基因上更强的昆虫物种的入侵,农民们被逼到极限,每个季度甚至经常喷洒70次。

第6段

Most of the pesticides in the market today remain inadequately tested for properties that cause cancer and mutations as well as for other adverse effects on health, says a study by United States environmental agencies. The United States National Resource Defense Council has found that DDT was the most popular of a long list of dangerous chemicals in use.

美国环境机构的一项研究表明,当今市场上大多数农药对导致癌症和突变的性质以及对健康的其他不利影响存在测试不足。美国国家资源保护委员会发现,DDT是许多正在使用的危险化学品中最受欢迎的一种。

第7段

In the face of the escalating perils from indiscriminate applications of pesticides, a more effective and ecologically sound strategy of biological control, involving the selective use of natural enemies of the pest population, is fast gaining popularity- though, as yet, it is a new field with limited potential. The advantage of biological control in contrast to other methods is that it provides a relatively low-cost, perpetual control system with a minimum of detrimental side-effects. When handled by experts, bio-control is safe, non-polluting and self-dispersing.

面对无差别使用农药不断加深的危险,生物控制,这一更有效和无害的生态战略(选择性害虫种群的天敌)正迅速受到欢迎-不过,至今它仍然是一个潜力有限的新领域。与其他方法相比,生物控制的优点在于它提供了一种成本相对较低,永性久的控制系统,且有害副作用最小。由专家处理时,生物控制是安全、无污染、并且可以自我扩散的。

第8段

The Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control (CIBC) in Bangalore, with its global network of research laboratories and field stations, is one of the most active, non-commercial research agencies engaged in pest control by setting natural predators against parasites. CIBC also serves as a clearing-house for the export and import of biological agents for pest control world-wide.

班加罗尔的英联邦生物防治学院(CIBC)与全球研究实验室和实地工作站都有联系,是从事害虫防治最活跃,非商业性的研究机构之一。其致力于寻找使用害虫的自然天敌。CIBC还是全球范围内用于虫害控制的生物制剂进出口的交换所。

第9段

CIBC successfully used a seed-feeding weevil, native to Mexico, to control the obnoxious parthenium weed, known to exert devious influence on agriculture and human health in both India and Australia. Similarly the Hyderabad-based Regional Research Laboratory (RRL), supported by CIBC, is now trying out an Argentinian weevil for the eradication of water hyacinth, another dangerous weed, which has become a nuisance in many parts of the world. According to Mrs Kaiser Jamil of RRL, ‘The Argentinian weevil does not attack any other plant and a pair of adult bugs could destroy the weed in 4-5 days. ‘ CIBC is also perfecting the technique for breeding parasites that prey on ‘disapene scale’ insects – notorious defoliants of fruit trees in the US and India.

CIBC成功地使用了一种原产于墨西哥的食用种子的象鼻虫来控制令人讨厌的银胶菊草。该草对印度和澳大利亚的农业和人类健康都产生了负面影响。同样,在CIBC的支持下,位于海得拉巴的地区实验室(RRL)现在正在尝试一种阿根廷象鼻虫,以根除另一种危险的杂草-水葫芦。这种杂草已在世界许多地方成为困扰。据RRL的Kaiser Jamil女士说:“阿根廷象鼻虫不会攻击任何其他植物,一对成年的昆虫可以在4-5天内破坏杂草。CIBC还正在完善繁殖以“二萜类”昆虫为食的寄生虫技术。这些臭名昭著昆虫使得美国和印度的果树落叶。

第10段

How effectively biological control can be pressed into service is proved by the following examples. In the late 1960s, when Sri Lanka’s flourishing coconut groves were plagued by leaf-mining hispides, a larval parasite imported from Singapore brought the pest under control. A natural predator indigenous to India, Neodumetia sangawani, was found useful in controlling the Rhodes grass-scale insect that was devouring forage grass in many parts of the US. By using Neochetina bruci, a beetle native to Brazil, scientists at Kerala Agricultural University freed a 12-kilometrelong canal from the clutches of the weed Salvinia molesta, popularly called ‘African Payal’ in Kerala. About 30, 000 hectares of rice fields in Kerala are infested by this weed.

以下例子证明了如何有效地实施生物防治。20世纪60年代后期,当斯里兰卡茂盛的椰子林被采叶类杀虫剂所困扰时,从新加坡进口的幼虫寄生虫使该害虫得到了控制。人们发现,印度本土的天然捕食者Neodumetia sangawani可用于控制罗得岛草鳞昆虫,该昆虫在美国许多地方都在吞食草料。喀拉拉邦农业大学的科学家们使用巴西本土的甲虫Neochetina bruci,使得一条长达12公里的运河从喀拉拉邦的杂草(Salvinia molesta,通常被称为“非洲Payal”)中解放出来。这种杂草在喀拉拉邦侵害了大约30,000公顷稻田。

剑桥雅思8Test4阅读Passage1原文翻译 Land of the Rising Sum 数学崛起之地

剑桥雅思8Test4阅读Passage3原文翻译 Collecting Ant Specimens 采集蚂蚁样本

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