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剑桥雅思8Test4阅读Passage3原文翻译 Collecting Ant Specimens 采集蚂蚁样 […]

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剑桥雅思8Test4阅读Passage3原文翻译 Collecting Ant Specimens 采集蚂蚁样本

剑桥雅思8阅读第四套题目第三篇文章的主题为采集蚂蚁样本。文章采用总分结构,一上来先说分类学与生态学采集蚂蚁的方法不太一样,然后分别介绍了手工采集法,诱饵采集法,落叶层抽样法,陷阱采集法。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思8 test 4 passage 3 采集蚂蚁样本

剑桥雅思8Test4阅读Passage3答案解析 Collecting Ant Specimens 收集蚂蚁样本

剑桥雅思8 Test4 Passage3阅读原文翻译

第1段

Collecting ants can be as simple as picking up stray ones and placing them in a glass jar, or as complicated as completing an exhaustive survey of all species present in an area and estimating their relative abundances. The exact method used will depend on the final purpose of the collections. For taxonomy, or classification, long series, from a single nest, which contain all castes (workers, including majors and minors, and, if present, queens and males) are desirable, to allow the determination of variation within species. For ecological studies, the most important factor is collecting identifiable samples of as many of the different species present as possible. Unfortunately, these methods are not always compatible. The taxonomist sometimes overlooks whole species in favour of those groups currently under study, while the ecologist often collects only a limited number of specimens of each species, thus reducing their value for taxonomic investigations.

收集蚂蚁可以很简单,例如捡起走失的蚂蚁并将它们放在玻璃罐中,也可以很复杂,例如完成一个区域内所有蚂蚁种类的详尽调查,并估算它们的相对数量。所使用的具体方法将取决于收集的最终目的。对于分分类来说,最好是能够从一个巢穴中获取包含所有种类(包括成年和幼小的工蚁,以及蚁后和雄性,如果存在的话)在内的长序列,以便确定物种内的多样性。对于生态研究,最重要的因素是收集尽可能多的不同物种的可识别样本。不幸的是,这些方法并不总是能够互相兼容。分类学家有时会忽视整个物种,而倾向于当前正在研究的那些族群;而生态学家通常只收集每种物种数量有限的标本,这样就降低了它们在分类学研究中的价值。

第2段

To collect as wide a range of species as possible, several methods must be used. These include hand collecting, using baits to attract the ants, ground litter sampling, and the use of pitfall traps. Hand collecting consists of searching for ants everywhere they are likely to occur. This article is from Laokaoya website. This includes on the ground, under rocks, logs or other objects on the ground, in rotten wood on the ground or on trees, in vegetation, on tree trunks and under bark. When possible, collections should be made from nests or foraging columns and at least 20 to 25 individuals collected. This will ensure that all individuals are of the same species, and so increase their value for detailed studies. Since some species are largely nocturnal, collecting should not be confined to daytime. Specimens are collected using an aspirator (often called a pooter), forceps, a fine, moistened paint brush, or fingers, if the ants are known not to sting. Individual insects are placed in plastic or glass tubes (1. 5-3. 0 ml capacity for small ants, 5-8 ml for larger ants) containing 75% to 95% ethanol. Plastic tubes with secure tops are better than glass because they are lighter, and do not break as easily if mishandled.

为了收集尽可能广泛的物种,必须使用几种方法。它们包括手工收集,使用诱饵吸引蚂蚁,对地面垫料进行采样以及使用陷阱。手工收集包括文章来自老烤鸭雅思在可能出现蚂蚁的任何地方搜索蚂蚁。这包括地面上,岩石、原木或其他物体之下,地面腐烂的树木里,植被中,树干上和树皮下。可能的话,应从巢穴或觅食柱中收集,并至少收集20至25个个体。这样可以确保所有个体都属于同一物种,并因此可以增加它们进行详细研究的价值。由于某些物种主要在夜间活动,因此收集不应仅限于白天。可以使用吸气器(通常称为pooter),镊子,细的湿油漆刷俩进行收集。如果知道蚂蚁不会叮人的话,也可以使用手指。将单个蚂蚁放在装有75%至95%乙醇的塑料或玻璃管中(小蚂蚁为1. 5-3.0 ml,大蚂蚁为5-8 ml)。拥有固定盖子的塑料管比玻璃管更好,因为它们更轻,并且如果处理不当的话也不会轻易断裂。

第3段

Baits can be used to attract and concentrate foragers. This often increases the number of individuals collected and attracts species that are otherwise elusive. Sugars and meats or oils will attract different species and a range should be utilised. These baits Can be placed either on the ground or on the trunks of trees or large shrubs. When placed on the ground, baits should be situated on small paper cards or other flat, light-coloured surfaces, or in test-tubes or vials. This makes it easier to spot ants and to capture them before they can escape into the surrounding leaf litter.

诱饵可用于吸引和集中觅食者。这通常会增加收集到的个体数量,并吸引本来难以捉摸的物种。糖,肉或油会吸引不同的物种,因此应使用多种诱饵。这些诱饵可以放在地面,或者树木或大灌木的树干上。当放置在地面上时,诱饵应放在小纸片或其他浅色的平面上,或在试管或小瓶中。这样可以在蚂蚁逃脱到周围的枯枝落叶中之前,更轻松地发现并捕获它们。

第4段

Many ants are small and forage primarily in the layer of leaves and other debris on the ground. Collecting these species by hand can be difficult. One of the most successful ways to collect them is to gather the leaf litter in which they are foraging and extract the ants from it. This is most commonly done by placing leaf litter on a screen over a large funnel, often under some heat. As the leaf litter dries from above, ants (and other animals) move downward and eventually fall out the bottom and are collected in alcohol placed below the funnel. This method works especially well in rain forests and marshy areas. A method of improving the catch when using a funnel is to sift the leaf litter through a coarse screen before placing it above the funnel. This will concentrate the litter and remove larger leaves and twigs. It will also allow more litter to be sampled when using a limited number of funnels.

许多蚂蚁都很小,主要在地面上的树叶里和其他杂物中觅食。手工收集这些物种可能很困难。收集它们的最成功的方法之一是聚集它们正在觅食的叶子并从中提取蚂蚁。通常将落叶放在大漏斗上的滤网上,并进行加热。当叶子逐渐干燥时,蚂蚁(和其他动物)会向下移动并最终从底部掉出,并被收集在漏斗下方的酒精中。此方法在雨林和沼泽地区特别有效。一种在使用漏斗时提升捕获量的方法是,先将叶子通过粗滤网过滤一遍,然后再将其置于漏斗上方。这将使叶子更集中,并去除较大的叶子和树枝。当漏斗数量有限时,它还可以对更多的树叶进行采样。

第5段

The pitfall trap is another commonly used tool for collecting ants. A pitfall trap can be any small container placed in the ground with the top level with the surrounding surface and filled with a preservative. Ants are collected when they fall into the trap while foraging. The diameter of the traps can vary from about 18 mm to 10 cm and the number used can vary from a few to several hundred. The size of the traps used is influenced largely by personal preference (although larger sizes are generally better), while the number will be determined by the study being undertaken. The preservative used is usually ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, as alcohol will evaporate quickly and the traps will dry out. One advantage of pitfall traps is that they can be used to collect over a period of time with minimal maintenance and intervention. One disadvantage is that some species are not collected as they either avoid the traps or do not commonly encounter them while foraging.

陷阱是收集蚂蚁的另一种常用工具。陷阱可以是任何小型容器,该小容器可以放在地上,其顶部与周围的表面齐平,并装满防腐剂。蚂蚁在觅食时掉入陷阱并被收集。陷阱的直径可以在18毫米到10厘米之间变化,所用数量可以是几个到几百个不等。陷阱的大小在很大程度上受个人喜好的影响(尽管较大的陷阱通常更好),而陷阱的数量将由正在进行的研究确定。所使用的防腐剂通常是乙二醇或丙二醇,因为酒精会迅速蒸发使得陷阱会变干。陷阱的一个优势是,它们可以在一段时间内持续收集,而不怎么需要维护和干预。一个缺点是无法收集某些五种,因为它们要么避开陷阱,要么在觅食时通常不会遇到陷阱。

剑桥雅思8Test4阅读Passage1原文翻译 Land of the Rising Sum 数学崛起之地

剑桥雅思8Test4阅读Passage2原文翻译 Biological control of pests 生物防虫法

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