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剑桥雅思8Test1阅读Passage2原文翻译 Air Traffic Control in the USA […]

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剑桥雅思8Test1阅读Passage2原文翻译 Air Traffic Control in the USA 美国航空交通管制

剑桥雅思8阅读第一套题目第二篇文章的主题为美国航空交通管制。文章一共7段,大体分为三部分,分别介绍了航空管制实行的原因,航空管制的发展,以及现在航空管制的情况。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及具体题目的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思8 test 1 passage 2 美国航空交通管制

剑桥雅思8Test1阅读Passage2答案解析 Air traffic Control in the USA 美国航空管制

剑桥雅思8 Test1 Passage2阅读原文翻译

段落A

An accident that occurred in the skies over the Grand Canyon in 1956 resulted in the establishment of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to regulate and oversee the operation of aircraft in the skies over the United States, which were becoming quite congested. The resulting structure of air traffic control has greatly increased the safety of flight in the United States, and similar air traffic control procedures are also in place over much of the rest of the world.

1956年,大峡谷上空发生的一次事故导致联邦航空管理局(FAA)的成立,以监管和监督美国上空越来越拥挤的飞机运营。由此产生的空中交通管制结构极大地提高了美国的飞行安全性,并且世界上许多其他地区也采用了类似的空中交通管制程序。

段落B

Rudimentary air traffic control (ATC) existed well before the Grand Canyon disaster. As early as the 1920s, the earliest air traffic controllers manually guided aircraft in the vicinity of the airports, using lights and flags, while beacons and flashing lights were placed along cross-country routes to establish the earliest airways. However, this article is from Laokaoya website, this purely visual system was useless in bad weather, and, by the 1930s, radio communication was coming into use for ATC. The first region to have something approximating today’s ATC was New York City, with other major metropolitan areas following soon after.

原始的空中交通管制(ATC)在大峡谷灾难发生之前就已经存在。早在20世纪20年代,最早的空中交通管制员就在飞机场附近使用灯光和旗帜手动引导飞机,而信标和闪光灯文章来自老烤鸭雅思则沿着穿过国家的路线放置,以建立最早的空中航线。但是,这种纯视觉的系统在恶劣的天气下没有什么用处。到20世纪30年代,无线电通信已用于ATC。第一个使用与今天的ATC差不多的系统的地区是纽约市,此后不久,其他主要城市也跟了上来。

段落C

In the 1940s, ATC centres could and did take advantage of the newly developed radar and improved radio communication brought about by the Second World War, but the system remained rudimentary. It was only after the creation of the FAA that full-scale regulation of America’s airspace took place, and this was fortuitous, for the advent of the jet engine suddenly resulted in a large number of very fast planes, reducing pilots’ margin of error and practically demanding some set of rules to keep everyone well separated and operating safely in the air.

20世纪40年代,空中交通管制中心可以而且确实利用了第二次世界大战带来的新开发的雷达和改进的无线电通信,但是该系统仍然是原始的。直到美国联邦航空局(FAA)建立之后,美国领空的全面管制才真正开始。而这完全是偶然的,因为喷气发动机的问世导致出现大量飞行速度非常快的飞机,从而缩减了飞行员的犯错空间,并出现制定一些规则的实际要求,以保证每架飞机互相分离,在空中安全运行。

段落D

Many people think that ATC consists of a row of controllers sitting in front of their radar screens at the nation’s airports, telling arriving and departing traffic what to do. This is a very incomplete part of the picture. The FAA realised that the airspace over the United States would at any time have many different kinds of planes, flying for many different purposes, in a variety of weather conditions, and the same kind of structure was needed to accommodate all of them.

许多人认为ATC由一排坐在机场雷达屏幕前的控制员组成,告诉到达和离开的飞机该做什么。这种想法是片面的。美国联邦航空局意识到,在美国空域任何时候都有许多不同种类的飞机在各种天气条件下出于不同目的而飞行,因此需要某种相同的结构来容纳所有这些飞机。

段落E

To meet this challenge, the following elements were put into effect. First, ATC extends over virtually the entire United States. In general, from 365m above the ground and higher, the entire country is blanketed by controlled airspace. In certain areas, mainly near airports, controlled airspace extends down to 215m above the ground, and, in the immediate vicinity of an airport, all the way down to the surface. Controlled airspace is that airspace in which FAA regulations apply. Elsewhere, in uncontrolled airspace, pilots are bound by fewer regulations. In this way, the recreational pilot who simply wishes to go flying for a while without all the restrictions imposed by the FAA has only to stay in uncontrolled airspace, below 365m, while the pilot who does want the protection afforded by ATC can easily enter the controlled airspace.

为了应对这一挑战,(美国联邦航空局)实行了以下几点。首先,空中交通管制几乎遍及整个美国。通常来说,整个国家地面365米以上的空域都受到控制。在某些地区,主要是在机场附近,受控空域一直延伸到地面上方215m,在临近机场的地方一直延伸到地面。受控空域是实行美国联邦航空局规定的空域。在其他不受控制的领空中,飞行员受到的法规约束较少。这样一来,希望不受美国联邦航空局(FAA)限制,只是飞行一段时间的休闲飞行员只需要停留在365m以下不受控制的领空即可,而希望获得ATC保护的飞行员可以轻松进入控制空域。

段落F

The FAA then recognised two types of operating environments. In good meteorological conditions, flying would be permitted under Visual Flight Rules (VFR), which suggests a strong reliance on visual cues to maintain an acceptable level of safety. Poor visibility necessitated a set of Instrumental Flight Rules (IFR), under which the pilot relied on altitude and navigational information provided by the plane’s instrument panel to fly safely. On a clear day, a pilot in controlled airspace can choose a VFR or IFR flight plan, and the FAA regulations were devised in a way which accommodates both VFR and IFR operations in the same airspace. However, a pilot can only choose to fly IFR if they possess an instrument rating which is above and beyond the basic pilot’s license that must also be held.

FAA随后界定出两种运行环境。在良好的气象条件下,允许利用视觉飞行规则(VFR)飞行,它极度依赖视觉线索来维持可接受的安全水平。能见度差的时候则必须使用一套仪表飞行规则(IFR)。飞行员必须依靠飞机仪表板提供的高度和导航信息安全飞行。在晴朗的日子里,受控空域中的飞行员可以选择VFR或IFR飞行计划,而FAA的规则设定可以在同一空域中同时容纳VFR和IFR操作。但是,飞行员只有在持有基础飞行执照之上的资质时,才可以选择使用IFR。

段落G

Controlled airspace is divided into several different types, designated by letters of the alphabet. Uncontrolled airspace is designated Class F, while controlled airspace below 5, 490m above sea level and not in the vicinity of an airport is Class E. All airspace above 5, 490m is designated Class A. The reason for the division of Class E and Class A airspace stems from the type of planes operating in them. Generally, Class E airspace is where one finds general aviation aircraft (few of which can climb above 5, 490m anyway), and commercial turboprop aircraft. Above 5, 490m is the realm of the heavy jets, since jet engines operate more efficiently at higher altitudes. The difference between Class E and A airspace is that in Class A, all operations are IFR, and pilots must be instrument-rated, that is, skilled and licensed in aircraft instrumentation. This is because ATC control of the entire space is essential. Three other types of airspace, Classes D, C and B, govern the vicinity of airports. These correspond roughly to small municipal, medium-sized metropolitan and major metropolitan airports respectively, and encompass an increasingly rigorous set of regulations. For example, all a VFR pilot has to do to enter Class C airspace is establish two-way radio contact with ATC. No explicit permission from ATC to enter is needed, although the pilot must continue to obey all regulations governing VFR flight. To enter Class B airspace, such as on approach to a major metropolitan airport, an explicit ATC clearance is required. The private pilot who cruises without permission into this airspace risks losing their license.

受控空域分为几种不同类型,并以字母表示。不受管制的空域被划为F级。而海拔5490米以下且不在机场附近的管制空域被划为E级。所有5490米以上的空域被划为A级。划分E级与A级空域的原因源自其中运行的飞机类型。通常,在E级空域可以找到通用航空飞机(无论如何,它们很少能爬升到5490米以上)和商用涡轮螺旋桨飞机。5490米以上是重型喷气式飞机的领域。这是因为喷气发动机在更高的海拔下可以更有效地运行。 E级和A级空域之间的区别在于,A级空域中的所有操作都是IFR,并且飞行员必须具有仪器等级,即熟练使用飞机仪表并具备执照。这是因为对整个空域进行ATC控制至关重要。其他三种类型的空域,D、C和B级,控制着机场附近。它们大致对应小型城市,中型城市和主要城市的机场,并且包含越来越严格的法规。例如,所有VFR飞行员在进入C级空域时必须建立与ATC的双向无线电联系。尽管飞行员必须继续遵守有关VFR飞行的所有规定,但不需要ATC的明确许可即可进入。要进入B级空域,例如接近大都市机场时,需要明确的ATC许可。未经许可进入该领空航行的私人飞行员可能会失去执照。

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