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剑桥雅思9Test2阅读Passage3原文翻译 A neuroscientist reveals how t […]

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剑桥雅思9Test2阅读Passage3原文翻译 A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently 神经学家解密创新思考

剑桥雅思9阅读第二套题目第三篇文章的主题为神经学家解密创新思考。文章一共8段,采用总分的结构,开头引出用神经经济学去分析传统叛逆者(创新者)以及他们大脑结构的三个不同之处,随后每一段介绍创新者的一种特点。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及对应的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思9 test 2 passage 3 创新思考解密

剑桥雅思9Test2阅读Passage3答案解析 a neuroscientist reveals how to think differently 神经科学家解密创新思考

剑桥雅思9 Test2 Passage3阅读原文翻译

第1段

In the last decade a revolution has occurred in the way that scientists think about the brain. We now know that the decisions humans make can be traced to the firing patterns of neurons in specific parts of the brain. These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics, which studies the brain’s secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors. A brain that can do this is an iconoclastic one. Briefly, an iconoclast is a person who does something that others say can’t be done.

在过去十年里,科学家思考大脑的方式发生了一场革命。我们现在知道,人类做出的决定可以追溯到大脑特定部位的神经元放电模式。这些发现导致神经经济学领域的出现。该领域研究大脑在需要创新的经济领域取得成功的秘密。能够做到这一点的大脑具有叛逆的特点。简而言之,叛逆者是做别人认为无法做到的事情的人。

第2段

This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more precisely, it is the brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence. Each of these three functions utilizes a different circuit in the brain. Naysayers might suggest that the brain is irrelevant that thinking in an original, even revolutionary, way is more a matter of personality than brain function. But the field of neuroeconomics was born out of the realization that the physical working of the brain place limitations on the way we make decisions. By understanding these constraints, we begin to understand why some people march to a different drumbeat.

这个定义意味着叛逆者与他人不同。但是更确切地说,是他们的大脑在三个截然不同的领域与他人不同:感知,恐惧反应和社会智慧。这三种功能中的每一种文章来自老烤鸭雅思都利用大脑中的不同回路。反对者可能认为,大脑无关紧要,以创新甚至是革命性的方式思考更多的是性格而非大脑的作用。但正是因为认识到大脑的客观运转限制着我们的决策方式,神经经济学才由此诞生。 通过了解这些约束,我们开始理解为什么有些人会产生不同的想法。

第3段

The first thing to realize is that the brain suffers from limited resources. It has a fixed energy budget, about the same as a 40 watt light bulb, so it has evolved to work as efficiently as possible. This is where most people are impeded from being an iconoclast. For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information, such as what other people say, to make sense of what it is seeing. This happens all the time. The brain takes shortcuts that work so well we hardly ever aware of them. We think our perceptions of the world are real, but they are only biological and electrical rumblings. Perception is not simply a product of what your eyes or ears transmit to your brain. More than the physical reality of photons or sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.

首先要意识到的是,大脑拥有的资源有限。它具有固定的能量预算,大约与40瓦的灯泡相同,因此它已经进化为尽可能高效地工作。也正是这一点阻碍大多数人成为叛逆者。例如,当面对来自眼睛的信息流时,大脑将以最快的方式解读该信息。因此,它将利用过去的经验和任何其他信息来源(例如别人说的话)来理解所看到的内容。这事儿一直发生。大脑采取行之有效的捷径,以至于我们几乎没有意识到它们的存在。我们认为我们对世界的看法是真实的,但它其实仅仅是生物和电子的回响。感知不仅仅是眼睛或耳朵传输到大脑的产物。相比于光子或声波的物理现实,感知更多的是大脑的产物。

第4段

Perception is central to iconoclasm. Iconoclasts see things differently to other people. Their brains do not fail into efficiency pitfalls as much as the average person’s brain. Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcut that plague most people. Perception is not something that is hardwired into the brain. It is a learned process, which is both a curse and an opportunity for change. The brain faces the fundamental problem of interpreting physical stimuli from the sense. Everything the brain sees, hears, or touches has multiple interpretations. The one that is ultimately chosen is simply the brain’s best theory. In technical terms, these conjectures have their basis in the statistical likelihood of one interpretation over another and are heavily influenced by past experience and, importantly for potential iconoclasts, what other people say.

感知对于离经叛道至关重要。叛逆者对事物的看法与其他人不同。他们的大脑不会像普通人的大脑那样陷入效率陷阱。叛逆者,无论是因为他们出生如此还是后天习得,已经找到了绕过困扰大多数人的感知捷径的方法。感知不是大脑连接的硬件。这是一个学习的过程,既是诅咒,也是变革的机会。大脑面临着从感觉上解释身体刺激的根本问题。大脑看到,听到或触摸的一切都有多种解释。最终选择的只是大脑的最佳理论。用技术术语来说,这些猜想是建立在一种解释优于另一种解释的统计学可能性的基础之上的,并且受过去经验和其他人的观点的影响很大。这点对于潜在的叛逆者而言十分重要。

第5段

The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before. Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments. Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.

获取与众不同的思维方式的最好办法是用从未经历过的事物轰炸大脑。新鲜事物过去经验的锁链中释放出感知过程,并迫使大脑做出新的判断。成功的叛逆者非常愿意接触新鲜和不同的事物。对叛逆者的观察表明,他们拥抱新鲜事物,而大多数人则会避免与众不同的东西。

第6段

The problem with novelty, however, is that it tends to trigger the brain’s fear system. Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks. There are many types of fear, but the two that inhibit iconoclastic thinking and people generally find difficult to deal with are fear of uncertainty and fear of public ridicule. These may seem like trivial phobia. But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.

但是,新鲜事物的问题在于,它往往会触发大脑的恐惧系统。恐惧是像叛逆者那样思考的主要障碍,它将普通人困在既定轨道上。恐惧有多种类型,但抑制反传统思维并且人们发现很难处理的两种是:对不确定的恐惧和对公众嘲笑的恐惧。这看起来可能像是微不足道的东西。但对公开演讲的恐惧困扰着三分之一的人口,而每个人又都得时不时做公开演讲。正是因为这种现象太过常见,人们很难将其看作一种精神疾病。这使得人们普遍认为它是一种精神障碍。它只是人类本性的一种常见变化,而叛逆者则不会让其阻碍他们的反应。

第7段

Finally, to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence comes in. Social intelligence is the ability to understand and manage people in a business setting. In the last decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas. Perception is important in social cognition too. The perception of someone’s enthusiasm, or reputation, can make or break a deal. Understanding how perception becomes interviewed with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare.

最后,要成为成功的叛逆者,一个人必须向他人兜售自己的想法。这就轮到社交智慧登场了。社交智慧是在商业环境中理解和管理人的能力。在过去的十年中,人们对社会型大脑的认知突飞猛进,对这种大脑在团队协作共同决策时所起的作用也了如指掌。神经科学已经揭示了哪些大脑回路负责诸如理解他人想法,同理心,公平和社会认同等功能。这些大脑区域在人们是否能说服他人相信自己的想法方面起着关键作用。感知在社会认知中也很重要。对某人热情,或声誉的看法,可以成就或破坏异一场交易。若能了解感知与社会决策交缠的关系,就能明白为什么成功的叛逆者如此稀少。

第8段

Iconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Rules aren’t important to them. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be a major asset to any organization. It is crucial for success in any field to understand how the iconoclastic mind works.

从艺术表现到技术,再到商业,叛逆者在各个领域创造新的机会。他们所提供的创造力和创新是其他人所无法轻易企及的。规则对他们并不重要。叛逆者面临着疏远和失败,但对于任何组织来说他们也是一项重要的资产。了解叛逆者的大脑如何工作对于在任何领域取得成功至关重要。

剑桥雅思9Test2阅读Passage1原文翻译 Hearing impairment 听觉障碍

剑桥雅思9Test2阅读Passage2原文翻译 venus in transit 金星凌日

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