1. nuclear family
含义：核心家庭。Family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children
例句：Most households in the Western world tend to be nuclear families.
2. extended family
含义：大家庭。Larger than the nuclear family – consisting of aunts, uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the same household.
例句：If you live with your extended family they can help to look after the children.
含义：单亲。A parent, not living with a spouse or partner, who has most of the day-to-day responsibilities in raising the child or children.
例句：Some people believe that it is not good for children to grow up in a single-parent household.
含义：亲戚。Group of people related by blood or marriage
例句：Relatives, such as grandparents, can play an important role in helping to raise children.
含义：兄弟姐妹。Brothers or sisters
例句：I have three siblings – one brother and two sisters.
含义：未成年。A young person who is developing into an adult
例句：Children can sometimes cause more problems for their parents when they become adolescents.
含义：受抚养者。Someone who depends on you for financial support, such as a child or family member who does not work
例句：My dependants will be well-looked after when I die as I have left a lot of money to them in my will.
含义：权威的。Demanding that people obey completely and refusing to allow them freedom to act as they wish
例句：His father was very authoritarian and he used to scare me quite a lot.
9. birth control/contraception
含义：计划生育。(the use of) any of various methods intended to prevent a woman becoming pregnant
例句：One of the reasons for the falling number of births in developing countries is birth control. Medical clinics often distribute free contraception.
10. birth rate
含义：出生率。The number of babies born over a given time
例句：The birth rate has been falling in many countries
11. bring up/upbringing
含义：养育。To care for a child until he or she is an adult, often giving him or her particular beliefs
例句：Children should be brought up to respect their parents.
I had a very good upbringing.
含义：养育。To take care of a person (or an animal or plant) until they are completely grown
例句：Her parents raised her very well as she is now a very kind and considerate young woman.
含义：照看儿童。Care for children provided by either the government, an organization, or a person, while parents are at work or are away for another reason
例句：Cheap childcare is very important in order to allow mother’s to return to work.
含义：离婚。An official or legal process to end a marriage
例句：My parents divorced when I was 15.
Divorce is very common these days.
含义：分居。An arrangement, but not necessarily done legally, by which two married people stop living together as a couple.
例句：Me and my partner are having a trial separation. Hopefully, we can sort things out.
16. child neglect
含义：忽视儿童需求。A form of child abuse where there is an ongoing failure to meet a child’s basic needs, such as being left without adequate food, clothes, shelter, medicine etc.
例句：Social services will intervene if a child has been neglected.
17. dysfunctional family
含义：失调家庭。A family where there is conflict, misbehavior, and often child neglect, resulting in poor emotional and physical health
例句：The child comes from a very dysfunctional family. The father was violent and is now in prison and the mother has a drugs problem.
18. emotional security
含义：情感安全。To feel happy and secure from having enough love, acceptance and respect
例句：The most important factor leading to a fulfilled and happy life for a child is emotional security.
含义：适应能力强的。Reasonable and has good judgment and their behaviour is not difficult or strange
例句：A child brought up by responsible parents and provided with emotional security will grow up to be very well-adjusted.
20. formative years
含义：性格形成时期。A period of a person’s life, usually childhood, that has a big influence on the person they become and the rest of that persons life
例句：If things go wrong for someone in their formative years, it can have an impact on their adult life.
含义：领养。Taking on the legal responsibilities as parent of a child that is not one’s biological child
例句：If a couple can’t have a child they may decide to adopt.
含义：扶养，促进。Taking on the responsibilities for a child in place of the child’s natural parents but without legally adopting the child.
例句：Fostering a child can be a very fulfilling experience.
They have decided to become foster parents.
含义：养育。Care for and protect (someone or something) while they are growing
例句：It is the family that can provide a supportive, secure, and nurturing environment, which is crucial to the way in which a child becomes an adult.
24. overprotective parents
含义：过度保护的父母。Wishing to protect a child too much
例句：Children who have had overprotective parents do not build up a strong character to deal with the outside world on their own.
25. spoiled child
含义：被溺爱的孩子。A child who shows bad behaviour from overindulgence by their parents
例句：Children who are given everything that they demand from their parents may become very spoiled.