含义：安慰剂。A drug which has no physical effects, used in pharmaceutical tests to compare the physical effects of taking a real drug from its psychological effects.
例句：She was given a placebo, not the real drug, but she said she felt much better.
2. placebo effect
含义：安慰剂效应。The placebo effect is when someone’s condition improves because they think they are taking medicine.
例句：She was given a placebo, not the real drug, but she said she felt much better- that’s the placebo effect.
3. side effect
含义：副作用。An extra, usually bad, occurrence caused by taking a drug.
例句：Drugs should not be tested on animals because there are many possible side effects.
Much of today’s modern medicine has side effects. I prefer alternative therapies.
含义：证据。To show a particular result after a period of time.
例句：The amount of evidence that scientists now have proves that climate change is being caused by humans.
We now have proof that climate change is caused by human activity.
含义：实验。A test done in order to learn something or to find out whether something works or is true
例句：Experimenting on animals is necessary in order to discover if new drugs are dangerous or not.
Scientists are conducting experiments to test the effectiveness of the new drug.
含义：基因。A part of the DNA in a cell which contains information in a special pattern received by each animal or plant from its parents, and which controls its physical development, behaviour, etc
例句：Genes are an important factor in personality development.
The doctors think his illness was genetic. It came from his mother because she had the same illness when she was young.
7. genetic engineering/modification
含义：基因工程，转基因。Changing the structure of the genes of a living thing in order to make it healthier or stronger or more useful to humans.
例句：There is evidence that genetically modified food is harmful to humans.
Some plants have been genetically engineered to be resistant to herbicides.
8. genetically modified organisms
含义：转基因生物。Plants, animals or micro organisms that have changed through genetic engineering.
例句：Most commercialised GMO crop plants are insect resistant and/or herbicide-tolerant.
含义：克隆。A plant or animal which has the same genes as the original from which it was produced
例句：The first animal to be cloned was Dolly the sheep.
I believe that cloning humans is unethical.
含义：地球工程。气候工程。The deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system, in order to try and control global warming
例句：Some scientists believe geoengineering is the only way to reduce the warming of the climate.
Controlling the weather by geoengineering is a possible solution to climate change, but it is controversial.
含义：电脑的，网络的。A prefix for things related to computers, especially the internet.
例句：Cyber bullying via social media such as Facebook has become a major problem.
A cybercafe is a place where you can buy drinks and use computers at the same time.
含义：高科技的。Using the most advanced and developed machines and methods.
例句：Japan is a very high-tech country. Everyone has all the latest electronic gadgets.
含义：理论。A formal statement of the rules on which a subject of study is based or of ideas which are suggested to explain a fact or event or, more generally, an opinion or explanation
例句：There are two opposing theories on the causes of climate change – one says it is caused by humans, the other believe it is a natural cycle.