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剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage2原文翻译 Autumn leaves 秋叶变红 剑桥雅思10阅读第三 […]


剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage2原文翻译 Autumn leaves 秋叶变红



雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思10 test 3 passage 2 秋天树叶变红的研究autumn leaves

剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage2答案解析 Autumn leaves 秋叶变红

剑桥雅思10 Test3 Passage2阅读原文翻译


One of the most captivating natural events of the year in many areas throughout North America is the turning of the leaves in the fall. The colours are magnificent, but the question of exactly why some trees turn yellow or orange, and others red or purple, is something which has long puzzled scientists.



Summer leaves are green because they are full of chlorophyll, the molecule that captures sunlight and converts that energy into new building materials for the tree. As fall approaches in the northern hemisphere, the amount of solar energy available declines considerably. For many trees —­ evergreen conifers being an exception -the best strategy is to abandon photosynthesis* until the spring. So rather than maintaining the now redundant leaves throughout the winter, the tree saves its precious resources and discards them. But before letting its leaves go, the tree dismantles their chlorophyll molecules and ships their valuable nitrogen back into the twigs. As chlorophyll is depleted, other colours that have been dominated by it throughout the summer begin to be revealed. This unmasking explains the autumn colours of yellow and orange, but not the brilliant reds and purples of trees such as the maple or sumac.

夏天的叶子是绿色的,因为它们充满了叶绿素。叶绿素文章来自老烤鸭雅思是一种捕获阳光并将该能量转化为新的树木增长材料的分子。随着北半球秋天的到来,可利用的太阳能数量大大减少。对于许多树木来说- 常绿针叶树除外-最佳策略是放弃光合作用直到春天来临。因此,与其保留冬季里十分多余的叶子,树木选择节省其宝贵的资源而抛弃它们。但在弃置这些叶子之前,树木会分解其中的叶绿素分子,并将里面含有的宝贵的氮元素运回枝干。随着叶绿素的枯竭,夏季里被它主导的颜色开始显现出来。这一显露过程解释了秋天里出现的黄色和橙色,但却无法解释诸如枫树或漆树之类的树木所呈现的艳丽的红色和紫色。


The source of the red is widely known: it is created by anthocyanins, water-soluble plant pigments reflecting the red to blue range of the visible spectrum. They belong to a class of sugar-based chemical compounds also known as flavonoids. What’s puzzling is that anthocyanins are actually newly minted, made in the leaves at the same time as the tree is preparing to drop them. But it is hard to make sense of the manufacture of anthocyanins—why should a tree bother making new chemicals in its leaves when it’s already scrambling to withdraw and preserve the ones already there?



Some theories about anthocyanins have argued that they might act as a chemical defence against attacks by insects or fungi, or that they might attract fruit-eating birds or increase a leaf’s tolerance to freezing. However there are problems with each of these theories, including the fact that leaves are red for such a relatively short period that the expense of energy needed to manufacture the anthocyanins would outweigh any anti-fungal or anti-herbivore activity achieved.



It has also been proposed that trees may produce vivid red colours to convince herbivorous insects that they are healthy and robust and would be easily able to mount chemical defences against infestation. If insects paid attention to such advertisements, they might be prompted to lay their eggs on a duller, and presumably less resistant host. The flaw in this theory lies in the lack of proof to support it. No one has as yet ascertained whether more robust trees sport the brightest leaves, or whether insects make choices according to colour intensity.



Perhaps the most plausible suggestion as to why leaves would go to the trouble of making anthocyanins when they’re busy packing up for the winter is the theory known as the ‘light screen’ hypothesis. It sounds paradoxical, because the idea behind this hypothesis is that the red pigment is made in autumn leaves to protect chlorophyll, the light-absorbing chemical, from too much light. Why does chlorophyll need protection when it is the natural world’s supreme light absorber? Why protect chlorophyll at a time when the tree is breaking it down to salvage as much of it as possible?



Chlorophyll, although exquisitely evolved to capture the energy of sunlight, can sometimes be overwhelmed by it, especially in situations of drought, low temperatures, or nutrient deficiency. Moreover, the problem of oversensitivity to light is even more acute in the fall, when the leaf is busy preparing for winter by dismantling its internal machinery. The energy absorbed by the chlorophyll molecules of the unstable autumn leaf is not immediately channeled into useful products and processes, as it would be in an intact summer leaf. The weakened fall leaf then becomes vulnerable to the highly destructive effects of the oxygen created by the excited chlorophyll molecules.



Even if you had never suspected that this is what was going on when leaves turn red, there are clues out there. One is straightforward: on many trees, the leaves that are the reddest are those on the side of the tree which gets most sun. Not only that, but the red is brighter on the upper side of the leaf. It has also been recognised for decades that the best conditions for intense red colours are dry, sunny days and cool nights, conditions that nicely match those that make leaves susceptible to excess light. And finally, trees such as maples usually get much redder the more north you travel in the northern hemisphere. It’s colder there, they’re more stressed, their chlorophyll is more sensitive and it needs more sunblock.



What is still not fully understood, however, is why some trees resort to producing red pigments while others don’t bother, and simply reveal their orange or yellow hues. Do these trees have other means at their disposal to prevent overexposure to light in autumn? Their story, though not as spectacular to the eye, will surely turn out to be as subtle and as complex.


剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage1原文翻译 The Context, Meaning and Scope of Tourism 旅游业

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剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage2原文翻译 Autumn leaves:等您坐沙发呢!


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