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剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage3原文翻译 Beyond the blue horizon 航海探索 […]


剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage3原文翻译 Beyond the blue horizon 航海探索



雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思10 test 3 passage 3 航海探索

剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage3答案解析 Beyond the blue horizon Lapita的航海探索

剑桥雅思10 Test3 Passage3阅读原文翻译


An important archaeological discovery on the island of Efate in the Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu has revealed traces of an ancient seafaring people, the distant ancestors of today’s Polynesians. The site came to light only by chance. An agricultural worker, digging in the grounds of a derelict plantation, scraped open a grave—the first of dozens in a burial ground some 3,000 years old. It is the oldest cemetery ever found in the Pacific islands, and it harbors the remains of an ancient people archaeologists call the Lapita.



They were daring blue-water adventurers who used basic canoes to rove across the ocean. But they were not just explorers. They were also pioneers who carried with them everything they would need to build new lives—their livestock, taro seedlings and stone tools. Within the span of several centuries, the Lapita stretched the boundaries of their world from the jungle-clad volcanoes of Papua New Guinea to the loneliest coral outliers of Tonga.



The Lapita left precious few dues about themselves, but Efate expands the volume of data available to researchers dramatically. The remains of 62 individuals have been uncovered so far, and archaeologists were also thrilled to find six complete Lapita pots. Other items included a Lapita burial urn with modeled birds arranged on the rim as though peering down at the human remains sealed inside. ‘It’s an important discovery’, says Matthew Spriggs, professor of archaeology at the Australian National University and head of the international team digging up the site, for it conclusively identifies the remains as Lapita.’

Lapita只留下有关自己的少许珍贵印记,但Efate极大地扩展了研究人员可获得的数据量。到目前为止,已经发现了62个人的遗体。而且考古学家还惊喜的找到了6个完整的Lapita罐子。其他物品还包括一个Lapita骨灰盒。其边缘装饰着鸟类模型,仿佛正在低头凝视着里面的人类遗体。澳大利亚国立大学考古学教授,挖掘该遗址的国际团队负责人马修·斯普里格斯(Matthew Spriggs)说:“这是一个重要发现。因为它彻底确认这些遗骸是Lapita人的”。


DNA teased from these human remains may help answer one of the most puzzling questions in Pacific anthropology: did all Pacific islanders spring from one source or many? Was there only one outward migration from a single point in Asia, or several from different points? ‘This represents the best opportunity we’ve had yet,’ says Spriggs, ‘to find out who the Lapita actually were, where they came from, and who their closest descendants are today.’



There is one stubborn question for which archaeology has yet to provide any answers: how did the Lapita accomplish the ancient equivalent of a moon landing, many times over? No-one has found one of their canoes or any rigging, which could reveal how the canoes were sailed. Nor do the oral histories and traditions of later Polynesians offer any insights, for they turn into myths long before they reach as far back in time as the Lapita.



‘All we can say for certain is that the Lapita had canoes that were capable of ocean voyages, and they had the ability to sail them,’ says Geoff Irwin, a professor of archaeology at the University of Auckland. Those sailing skills, he says, were developed and passed down over thousands of years by earlier mariners who worked their way through the archipelagoes of the western Pacific, making short crossings to nearby islands. The real adventure didn’t begin, however, until their Lapita descendants sailed out of sight of land, with empty horizons on every side. This must have been as difficult for them as landing on the moon is for us today. Certainly it distinguished them from their ancestors, but what gave them the courage to launch out on such risky voyages?

奥克兰大学考古学教授杰夫·欧文说:“我们可以肯定地说,Lapita拥有能够进行远洋航行的独木舟,而且他们具有航海能力。” 他说,这些航海技巧是由早期航海者开发并在几千年里传承下来的。这些航海者经过西太平洋群岛,抄近路穿过附近的岛屿。然而,直到他们的Lapita后裔驶出可见陆地的范围,四周空无一物,真正的冒险才开始。对于他们来说,这一定很困难,就像对今天的我们来说登陆月球一样。当然,这也将他们与他们的祖先区分开来。但究竟是什么给了他们勇气开启如此危险的航程呢?


The Lapita’s thrust into the Pacific was eastward, against the prevailing trade winds, Irwin notes. Those nagging headwinds, he argues, may have been the key to their success. ‘They could sail out for days into the unknown and assess the area, secure in the knowledge that if they didn’t find anything, they could turn about and catch a swift ride back on the trade winds. This is what would have made the whole thing work.’ Once out there, skilled seafarers would have detected abundant leads to follow to land: seabirds, coconuts and twigs carried out to sea by the tides, and the afternoon pile-up of clouds on the horizon which often indicates an island in the distance.


他认为,那些持续不断的逆风可能是其成功的关键。“他们可以在未知的地方航行数日,并评估该区域,因为他们知道如果找不到任何东西,他们可以调头,利用信风快速返回。这就是整个事情得以成功的原因。” 一旦身处外海,熟练的海员就会发现有大量的线索可供追踪陆地:海鸟,被潮汐带到了大海的叶子和嫩枝,下午在地平线上堆积的云层,这通常表示远处存在岛屿。


For returning explorers successful or not, the geography of their own archipelagoes would have provided a safety net. Without this to go by, overshooting their home pores, getting lost and sailing off into eternity would have been all too easy. Vanuatu, for example, stretches more than 500 miles in a northwest-southeast trend, its scores of intervisible islands forming a backstop for mariners riding the trade winds home.



All this presupposes one essential detail, says Atholl Anderson, professor of prehistory at the Australian National University: the Lapita had mastered the advanced art of sailing against the wind. ‘And there’s no proof they could do any such thing,’ Anderson says. ‘There has been this assumption they did, and people have built canoes to re-create those early voyages based on that assumption. But nobody has any idea what their canoes looked like or how they were rigged.’

澳大利亚国立大学史前学教授阿索尔·安德森(Atholl Anderson)说,所有这些都以一个关键细节为前提:Lapita掌握了逆风航行的先进技术。“没有证据表明他们可以做到这样的事情,”一直存在这样的假设,认为他们确实有此能力。还有人以此假设为基础制造独木舟来重现那些早期的航行。但没有人人道他们的独木舟长什么样子,以及如何操作“。


Rather than give all the credit to human skill, Anderson invokes the winds of chance. El Nino, the same climate disruption that affects the Pacific today, may have helped scatter the Lapita, Anderson suggests. He points out that climate data obtained from slow-growing corals around the Pacific indicate a series of unusually frequent El Ninos around the time of the Lapita expansion. By reversing the regular east-to-west flow of the trade winds for weeks at a time, these ‘super El Ninos’ might have taken the Lapita on long unplanned voyages.



However they did it, the Lapita spread themselves a third of the way across the Pacific, then called it quits for reasons known only to them. Ahead lay the vast emptiness of the central Pacific and perhaps they were too thinly stretched to venture farther. They probably never numbered more than a few thousand in total, and in their rapid migration eastward they encountered hundreds of islands – more than 300 in Fiji alone.


剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage1原文翻译 The Context, Meaning and Scope of Tourism 旅游业

剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage2原文翻译 Autumn leaves 秋叶变红

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剑桥雅思10Test3阅读Passage3原文翻译 Beyond the blue horizon:等您坐沙发呢!


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