剑桥雅思14Test2Passage1阅读原文翻译 Alexander Henderson (1831-1913)
剑桥雅思14 Test2 Passage1阅读原文翻译
Alexander Henderson was born in Scotland in 1831 and was the son of a successful merchant. His grandfather, also called Alexander, had founded the family business, and later became the first chairman of the National Bank of Scotland. The family had extensive landholdings in Scotland. Besides its residence in Edinburgh, it owned Press Estate, 650 acres of farmland about 35 miles southeast of the city. The family often stayed at Press Castle, the large mansion on the northern edge of the property, and Alexander spent much of his childhood in the area, playing on the beach near Eyemouth or fishing in the streams nearby.
Alexander Henderson于1831年在苏格兰出生，是一位成功商人的儿子。他的祖父，也叫做Alexander，开创了家族企业，后来成为苏格兰国家银行的首任主席。其家庭在苏格兰拥有大量的土地。除了位于爱丁堡的住宅之外，它还拥有Press Estate，一块城市东南部大约35英里处，占地650公顷的农场。一家人经常待在位于土地北部边缘的巨大住宅Press城堡。Alexander 在这里度过了其大部分的童年时光，要么在Eyemouth附近的海滩上玩耍，要么在附近的溪流中钓鱼。
Even after he went to school at Murcheston Academy on the outskirts of Edinburgh, Henderson returned to Press at weekends. In 1849 he began a three-year apprenticeship to become an accountant. Although he never liked the prospect of a business career, he stayed with it to please his family. In October 1855, however, he emigrated to Canada with his wife Agnes Elder Robertson and they settled in Montreal.
即便在他前往爱丁堡郊区的Murcheston Academy读书之后，Henderson仍然会在周末回到Press。1849年，他开始为期三年的学徒生涯以成为一名会计。虽然他从未喜欢过这一商业职业的前景，但他为了让家人开心还是一直做着。然而，1855年10月，他与妻子 Agnes Elder Robertson移民到了加拿大，并在蒙特利尔安顿下来。
Henderson learned photography in Montreal around the year 1857 and quickly took it up as a serious amateur. He became a personal friend and colleague of the Scottish-Canadian photographer William Notman. The two men made a photographic excursion to Niagara Falls in 1860 and they cooperated on experiments with magnesium flares as a source of artificial light in 1865. They belonged to the same societies and were among the founding members of the Art Association of Montreal. Henderson acted as chairman of the association’s first meeting, which was held in Notman’s studio on 11 January 1860.
In spite of their friendship, their styles of photography were quite different. While Notman’s landscapes were noted for their bold realism, Henderson for the first 20 years of his career produced romantic images, showing the strong influence of the British landscape tradition. His artistic and technical progress was rapid and in 1865 he published his first major collection of landscape photographs. The publication had limited circulation (only seven copies have ever been found), and was called Canadian Views and Studies. The contents of each copy vary significantly and have proved a useful source for evaluating Henderson’s early work.
In 1866, he gave up his business to open a photographic studio, advertising himself as a portrait and landscape photographer. From about 1870 he dropped portraiture to specialize in landscape photography and other views. His numerous photographs of city life revealed in street scenes, houses, and markets are alive with human activity, and although his favourite subject was landscape he usually composed his scenes around such human pursuits as farming the land, cutting ice on a river, or sailing down a woodland stream. There was sufficient demand for these types of scenes and others he took depicting the lumber trade, steamboats and waterfalls to enable him to make a living. There was little competing hobby or amateur photography before the late 1880s because of the time-consuming techniques involved and the weight of the equipment. People wanted to buy photographs as souvenirs of a trip or as gifts, and catering to this market, Henderson had stock photographs on display at his studio for mounting, framing, or inclusion in albums.
Henderson frequently exhibited his photographs in Montreal and abroad, in London, Edinburgh, Dublin, Paris, New York, and Philadelphia. He met with greater success in 1877 and 1878 in New York when he won first prizes in the exhibition held by E and H T Anthony and Company for landscapes using the Lambertype process. In 1878 his work won second prize at the world exhibition in Paris.
Henderson在蒙特利尔和诸如伦敦、爱丁堡、都柏林、巴黎、纽约以及费城等国外地区频繁展出自己的照片。他于1877年和1878年在纽约获得更大的成功，当时他因为使用漫反射的处理手法拍摄风景而赢得由E and H T Anthony and Company举办的摄影展的头奖。1878年，他的作品在巴黎世界博览会上赢得二等奖。
In the 1870s and 1880s Henderson travelled widely throughout Quebec and Ontario, in Canada, documenting the major cities of the two provinces and many of the villages in Quebec. He was especially fond of the wilderness and often travelled by canoe on the Blanche, du Lievre, and other noted eastern rivers. He went on several occasions to the Maritimes and in 1872 he sailed by yacht along the lower north shore of the St Lawrence River. That same year, while in the lower St Lawrence River region, he took some photographs of the construction of the Intercolonial Railway. This undertaking led in 1875 to a commission from the railway to record the principal structures along the almost-completed line connecting Montreal to Halifax. Commissions from other railways followed. In 1876 he photographed bridges on the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa and Occidental Railway between Montreal and Ottawa. In 1885 he went west along the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) as far as Rogers Pass in British Columbia, where he took photographs of the mountains and the progress of construction.
19世纪70年代和80年代，Henderson广泛游历了加拿大的魁北克和安大略地区，用影像记录下这两个省份中的主要城市和魁北克地区的许多村庄。他尤其喜欢旷野景象，并且经常乘独木舟沿Blanche, du Lievre和其他著名的东部河流旅行。他去过几次Maritimes。1872年，他乘坐帆船文章来自老烤鸭雅思走遍了St Lawrence河沿岸的北部低地地区。同一年在St Lawrence低地地区时，他拍摄了一些正在建设的殖民地之间铁路的照片。这一举动在1875年促成那家铁路公司委托他拍摄记录当时快要竣工的、连接蒙特利尔和哈利法克斯铁路沿线的主要建筑。来自其他铁路公司的委托接踵而至。1876年，他拍摄了魁北克线、蒙特利尔线、渥太华线以及蒙特利尔和渥太华之间的西洋铁路上的各种桥梁。1885年，他沿着加拿大太平洋铁路一直向西，最远到达过不列颠属哥伦比亚的Rogers Pass。在那里，他拍摄了群山和正在进行中的建筑工程。
In 1892 Henderson accepted a full-time position with the CPR as manager of a photographic department which he was to set up and administer. His duties included spending four months in the field each year. That summer he made his second trip west, photographing extensively along the railway line as far as Victoria. He continued in this post until 1897, when he retired completely from photography.
When Henderson died in 1913, his huge collection of glass negatives was stored in the basement of his house. Today collections of his work are held at the National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, and the McCord Museum of Canadian History, Montreal.