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剑桥雅思14Test4Passage2阅读原文翻译 Why zoos are good 动物园的好处 剑桥雅思 […]

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剑桥雅思14Test4Passage2阅读原文翻译 Why zoos are good 动物园的好处

剑桥雅思14阅读第四套题目第二篇文章的主题为动物园的作用。文章采用说明文的形式,分别列举了动物园生存条件更好,对动物保护有利,可以让参观者更加了解动物,可以教育人们,有利于进行研究等好处。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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剑桥雅思14Test4Passage2阅读答案解析 Why zoos are good 动物园的作用

剑桥雅思14 Test4 Passage2阅读原文翻译

段落A

In my view, it is perfectly possible for many species of animals living in zoos or wildlife parks to have a quality of life as high as, or higher than, in the wild. Animals in good zoos get a varied and high-quality diet with all the supplements required, and any illnesses they might have will be treated. Their movement might be somewhat restricted, but they have a safe environment in which to live, and they are spared bullying and social ostracism by others of their kind. They do not suffer from the threat or stress of predators, or the irritation and pain of parasites or injuries. The average captive animal will have a greater life expectancy compared with its wild counterpart, and will not die of drought, of starvation or in the jaws of a predator. A lot of very nasty things happen to truly ‘wild’ animals that simply don’t happen in good zoos, and to view a life that is ‘free’ as one that is automatically ‘good’ is, I think, an error. Furthermore, zoos serve several key purposes.

在我看来,许多生活在动物园或者野生动物园的动物完全有可能拥有跟生活在野外一样高、甚至更高的生活质量。优秀动物园里,动物的饮食多样,品质上乘,包含所有他们需要的补充剂,并且它们可能染上的任何疾病都会得到治疗。它们的活动或许会在某种程度上受限,但他们拥有安全的生活环境,免受物种中其他个体的欺凌和排斥。它们不用承受捕食者的威胁和压力,也远离寄生虫或受伤带来的刺激和痛苦。与生活在野外的同伴相比,圈养动物的平均寿命更长,不会死于干旱、饥饿或者捕食者的嘴下。许多真正“野生”动物身上发生的痛苦的事情并不会出现在优秀的动物园里。我认为,将“自由”的生活当作自然而然的“善”是种错误。此外,动物园还服务于几个关键目标。

段落B

Firstly, zoos aid conservation. Colossal numbers of species are becoming extinct across the world, and many more are increasingly threatened and therefore risk extinction. Moreover, some of these collapses have been sudden, dramatic and unexpected, or were simply discovered very late in the day. A species protected in captivity can be bred up to provide a reservoir population against a population crash or extinction in the wild. A good number of species only exist in captivity, with many of these living in zoos. Still more only exist in the wild because they have been reintroduced from zoos, or have wild populations that have been boosted by captive bred animals. Without these efforts there would be fewer species alive today. Although reintroduction successes are few and far between, the numbers are increasing, and the very fact that species have been saved or reintroduced as a result of captive breeding proves the value of such initiatives.

首先,动物园有利于动物保护。世界上大量的物种正在灭绝。更多的物种受到日益严重的威胁,并且因此面临着灭绝的风险。此外,一些灭绝发生的十分突然、剧烈并且出乎意料,或者只是到很晚的时候才被发现。圈养中受到保护的动物可以繁衍后代提供储备种群,以对抗野外中的数量骤降或者灭绝。许多物种都只存在于圈养状态,其中不少都生活在动物园里。更多的物种依然存在于野外只是因为它们从动物园里被放归回去,或者圈养繁育的动物提升了野生的数量。没有这些努力的话,如今现存的物种会更少。虽然放归成功的案例很少,但其数量正在增加。并且物种通过圈养哺育得到拯救或者被放归野外的事实本身就证明了这种措施的价值。

段落C

Zoos also provide education. Many children and adults, especially those in cities, will never see a wild animal beyond a fox or pigeon. While it is true that television documentaries are becoming ever more detailed and impressive, and many natural history specimens are on display in museums, there really is nothing to compare with seeing a living creature in the flesh, hearing it, smelling it, watching what it does and having the time to absorb details. That alone will bring a greater understanding and perspective to many, and hopefully give them a greater appreciation for wildlife, conservation efforts and how they can contribute.

动物园同样提供教育机会。许多孩子和成人,尤其是那些生活在城市里的,除了狐狸和鸽子之外根本见不到野生动物。虽然电视纪录片确实变得越来越细致、越来越令人赞叹,并且许多自然历史标本也在博物馆中展出,但没有任何东西文章来自老烤鸭雅思能真正比得上看到活生生的动物,听到它的声音,闻到它的气味,观察它的动作,以及花时间了解细节。单单这样就能让许多人增进对它们的理解,并有希望让他们更加欣赏野生动物,知道为保护它们所做的努力,明白自己能够如何做出贡献。

段落D

In addition to this, there is also the education that can take place in zoos through signs, talks and presentations which directly communicate information to visitors about the animals they are seeing and their place in the world. This was an area where zoos used to be lacking, but they are now increasingly sophisticated in their communication and outreach work. Many zoos also work directly to educate conservation workers in other countries, or send their animal keepers abroad to contribute their knowledge and skills to those working in zoos and reserves, thereby helping to improve conditions and reintroductions all over the world.

除此之外,动物园还可以通过标识、谈话和讲演提供教育。这些方法可以直接向游客传递关于他们正在观赏的动物的信息,以及它们在世界上的位置。在这方面,动物园之前做的不够,但它们如今在沟通和推广上愈发精细。许多动物园也直接为其他国家的动物保护工作者提供培训,或者将它们的动物饲养员送到国外,用他们的知识和技能帮助正在那些动物园或者保护区里工作的人,从而帮助提升全世界的条件和放归工作。

段落E

Zoos also play a key role in research. If we are to save wild species and restore and repair ecosystems we need to know about how key species live, act and react. Being able to undertake research on animals in zoos where there is less risk and fewer variables means real changes can be effected on wild populations. Finding out about, for example, the oestrus cycle of an animal or its breeding rate helps us manage wild populations. Procedures such as capturing and moving at-risk or dangerous individuals are bolstered by knowledge gained in zoos about doses for anaesthetics, and by experience in handling and transporting animals. This can make a real difference to conservation efforts and to the reduction of human-animal conflicts, and can provide a knowledge base for helping with the increasing threats of habitat destruction and other problems.

动物园在研究方面也起着关键作用。如果我们打算拯救野生动物,重建和修复生态系统,我们需要知道关键物种如何生存、活动以及回应。能够在动物园这样一个风险较低,变量较少的地方对动物展开研究,意味着我们可以对野生族群产生真正的改变。例如,查明动物的发情周期或者它的繁殖率有助于我们管理野生族群的数量。诸如捕捉并转移处于风险之中或者存在危险的个体这样的操作,就通过在动物园获取的、关于麻醉剂量的知识,以及处理和运输动物的经验得到了改善。这真正改变了保护工作,减少了人类和动物之间的冲突,并为解决栖息地日益遭到破坏威胁以及其他问题提供了知识基础。

段落F

In conclusion, considering the many ongoing global threats to the environment, it is hard for me to see zoos as anything other than essential to the long-term survival of numerous species. They are vital not just in terms of protecting animals, but as a means of learning about them to aid those still in the wild, as well as educating and informing the general population about these animals and their world so that they can assist or at least accept the need to be more environmentally conscious. Without them, the world would be, and would increasingly become, a much poorer place.

总的来说,考虑到许多正在发生的全球性环境威胁,我认为动物园对于大量物种的长期生存至关重要。它们不仅在动物保护方面十分关键,而且也是了解它们以帮助那些仍然生活在野外的动物的一种方式。它们同时还可以教授大众关于这些动物和它们世界的知识,以便他们能够帮助、或者至少是接受需要更强的环境意识这一观念。如果没有它们的话,世界会变的越来越贫乏。

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