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剑桥雅思14Test3Passage1阅读原文翻译 The concept of intelligence 智 […]

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剑桥雅思14Test3Passage1阅读原文翻译 The concept of intelligence 智力的概念

剑桥雅思14阅读第三套题目第一篇文章的主题为智力的概念。文章一共10段,大体可以分为三部分,分别介绍了智力概念的重要性,内隐理论是什么,以及三种不同的内隐理论。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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剑桥雅思14Test3Passage1阅读答案解析 The concept of intelligence 智力的概念

剑桥雅思14 Test3 Passage1阅读原文翻译

段落A

Looked at in one way, everyone knows what intelligence is; looked at in another way, no one does. In other words, people all have unconscious notions – known as ‘implicit theories’- of intelligence, but no one knows for certain what it actually is. This chapter addresses how people conceptualize intelligence, whatever it may actually be.

从某种方式来看,每个人都知道智力是什么;但换种方式看的话,就没有人知道了。换句话说,人们对智力都有一种下意识的概念。这被称作内隐理论。但没有人确切的知道它究竟是什么。这一章会解决无论知识是什么,人类如何将它概念化的问题

But why should we even care what people think intelligence is, as opposed only to valuing whatever it actually is? There are at least four reasons people’s conceptions of intelligence matter.

但是,我们为什么应该关心人们如何看待智力,而不是仅仅评估它确实是什么?至少有四个原因可以说明人们对智力的理解十分重要。

段落B

First, implicit theories of intelligence drive the way in which people perceive and evaluate their own intelligence and that of others. To better understand the judgments people make about their own and others’ abilities, it is useful to learn about people’s implicit theories. For example, parents’ implicit theories of their children’s language development will determine at what ages they will be willing to make various corrections in their children’s speech. More generally, parents’ implicit theories of intelligence will determine at what ages they believe their children are ready to perform various cognitive tasks. Job interviewers will make hiring decisions on the basis of their implicit theories of intelligence. People will decide who to be friends with on the basis of such theories. In sum, knowledge about implicit theories of intelligence is important because this knowledge is so often used by people to make judgments in the course of their everyday lives.

首先,智力的内隐理论决定人们看待和评估他们自己与他人智力的方式。为了更好地理解人们对于自身以及他人能力所做出的判断,了解人们的内隐理论十分重要。例如,父母关于他们孩子语言发展的内隐理论会决定他们愿意在什么时候对孩子的语言进行各种纠正。更普遍地来说,父母关于智力的内隐理论会决定他们什么时候相信孩子已经为进行各种认知任务做好了准备。面试官会基于他们自己的智力内隐理论做出招聘决定。人们会基于这样的理论决定跟谁交朋友。总的来说,关于智力内隐理论的知识很重要,因为在日常生活中,这种知识经常被人们用于做判断。

段落C

Second, the implicit theories of scientific investigators ultimately give rise to their explicit theories. Thus it is useful to find out what these implicit theories are. Implicit theories provide a framework that is useful in defining the general scope of a phenomenon – especially a not-well-understood phenomenon. These implicit theories can suggest what aspects of the phenomenon have been more or less attended to in previous investigations.

第二,对内隐理论进行科学研究最终会导致外显理论的出现。因此,研究这些内隐理论是什么十分有用。内隐理论所提供的框架结构在定义某一现象的广义范畴时十分有用,尤其是对于那些尚未被充分理解的现象来说。这些内隐理论可以提示该现象的哪些方面在之前的研究中或多或少被关注过。

段落D

Third, implicit theories can be useful when an investigator suspects that existing explicit theories are wrong or misleading. If an investigation of implicit theories reveals little correspondence between the extant implicit and explicit theories, the implicit theories may be wrong. But the possibility also needs to be taken into account that the explicit theories are wrong and in need of correction or supplementation. For example, some implicit theories of intelligence suggest the need for expansion of some of our explicit theories of the construct.

第三,内隐理论在研究者怀疑现存外显理论存在错误或误导时十分有用。如果对内隐理论的研究发现现存内隐理论与外显理论之间缺乏相关性,那么内隐理论就可能是错误的。但也需要考虑外显理论错误并需要纠正或补充的可能性。例如,一些有关智力的内隐理论表明需要对外显理论的架构进行扩展。

段落E

Finally, understanding implicit theories of intelligence can help elucidate developmental and cross-cultural differences. As mentioned earlier, people have expectations for intellectual performances that differ for children of different ages. How these expectations differ is in part a function of culture. For example, expectations for children who participate in Western-style schooling are almost certain to be different from those for children who do not participate in such schooling.

最终,理解智力的内隐理论有助于说明发展差异与跨文化差异。正如之前提到的那样,人们对于智力表现的预期因儿童年龄的不同而不同。这种预期上的差异一定程度上是由文化造成的。例如,对接受西式教育的儿童的期待几乎肯定不同于那些没有接受此类教育的儿童。

段落F

I have suggested that there are three major implicit theories of how intelligence relates to society as a whole (Sternberg, 1997). These might be called Hamiltonian, Jeffersonian, and Jacksonian. These views are not based strictly, but rather, loosely, on the philosophies of Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, and Andrew Jackson, three great statesmen in the history of the United States.

我曾指出,存在三种主要的内隐理论,解释智力如何与整体社会文章来自老烤鸭雅思相联系(Sternberg, 1997)。它们可以被称作汉密尔顿型,杰弗逊型,以及杰克逊型。这些理论并非严格基于亚历山大·汉密尔顿,托马斯·杰弗逊,以及安德鲁·杰克逊这三位美国历史上伟大政治家的哲学,但一定程度上与他们相关。

段落G

The Hamiltonian view, which is similar to the Platonic view, is that people are born with different levels of intelligence and that those who are less intelligent need the good offices of the more intelligent to keep them in line, whether they are called government officials or, in Plato’s term, philosopher-kings. Herrnstein and Murray (1994) seem to have shared this belief when they wrote about the emergence of a cognitive (high-IQ) elite, which eventually would have to take responsibility for the largely irresponsible masses of non-elite (low-IQ) people who cannot take care of themselves. Left to themselves, the unintelligent would create, as they always have created, a kind of chaos.

汉密尔顿的观点与柏拉图的观点相似,认为人们生而具有不同水平的智力。智力较低的人需要智力较高的人的统治(无论他们被称为政府官员,还是用柏拉图的词语“哲学王”)以确保秩序。Herrnstein和Murray(1994)在写到有关认知精英(高智商)的出现时,似乎认同这种观念。他们认为该群体最终不得不承担大多数不负责任的非精英群体(低智商)的责任。这些人无法照顾好他们自己。如果让他们自生自灭的话,智力较低的人会产生混乱,正如他们一直以来的那样。

段落H

The Jeffersonian view is that people should have equal opportunities, but they do not necessarily avail themselves equally of these opportunities and are not necessarily equally rewarded for their accomplishments. People are rewarded for what they accomplish, if given equal opportunity. Low achievers are not rewarded to the same extent as high achievers. In the Jeffersonian view, the goal of education is not to favor or foster an elite, as in the Hamiltonian tradition, but rather to allow children the opportunities to make full use of the skills they have. My own views are similar to these (Sternberg, 1997).

杰弗逊的观点认为,人们应该拥有同等的机会,但他们并不一定平等地受益于这些机会,也不一定因自己的成就获得同等的回报。在机遇相同的情况下,人们凭借自己的成就获得回报。低成就者的回报不会与高成就者相同。在杰弗逊看来,教育的目的不是像汉密尔顿的传统那样为了帮助或培养精英,而是让孩子有机会充分利用他们所拥有的技能。我自己的观点与此类似(Sternberg, 1997)。

段落I

The Jacksonian view is that all people are equal, not only as human beings but in terms of their competencies – that one person would serve as well as another in government or on a jury or in almost any position of responsibility. In this view of democracy, people are essentially intersubstitutable except for specialized skills, all of which can be learned. In this view, we do not need or want any institutions that might lead to favoring one group over another.

杰克逊的观点是人人平等,不仅作为人类如此,而且能力方面也一样。在政府或陪审团,或者在任何需要承担责任的岗位上,一个人能跟其他人一样同样出色的完成任务。在这种民主的观念下,人们除了可以被学习的专业技能之外,本质上是可以互相取代的。这一观点认为,我们不需要也不想要任何偏袒某一类人群的机构。

段落J

Implicit theories of intelligence and of the relationship of intelligence to society perhaps need to be considered more carefully than they have been because they often serve as underlying presuppositions for explicit theories and even experimental designs that are then taken as scientific contributions. Until scholars are able to discuss their implicit theories and thus their assumptions, they are likely to miss the point of what others are saying when discussing their explicit theories and their data.

智力的内隐理论以及智力与社会的关系或许需要比现在更加仔细的考量,因为它们经常作为外显理论,甚至是随后被当作科学贡献的实验设计的潜在假设。直到学者能够讨论他们的内隐理论,以及因之而来的假设,他们才不会再其他人讨论他们的外显理论与数据时显得毫无头绪。

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