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剑桥雅思14Test3Passage3阅读原文翻译 The power of play 玩耍的作用 剑桥雅思1 […]


剑桥雅思14Test3Passage3阅读原文翻译 The power of play 玩耍的作用



剑桥雅思14Test3Passage3阅读答案解析 The power of play 玩耍的力量

剑桥雅思14 Test3 Passage3阅读原文翻译


Virtually every child, the world over, plays. The drive to play is so intense that children will do so in any circumstances, for instance when they have no real toys, or when parents do not actively encourage the behavior. In the eyes of a young child, running, pretending, and building are fun. Researchers and educators know that these playful activities benefit the development of the whole child across social, cognitive, physical, and emotional domains. Indeed, play is such an instrumental component to healthy child development that the United Nations High Commission on Human Rights (1989) recognized play as a fundamental right of every child.



Yet, while experts continue to expound a powerful argument for the importance of play in children’s lives, the actual time children spend playing continues to decrease. Today, children play eight hours less each week than their counterparts did two decades ago (Elkind 2008). Under pressure of rising academic standards, play is being replaced by test preparation in kindergartens and grade schools, and parents who aim to give their preschoolers a leg up are led to believe that flashcards and educational ‘toys’ are the path to success. Our society has created a false dichotomy between play and learning.

然而,尽管专家不停地极力阐释玩耍在孩子生活中的重要性,但孩子实际用于玩耍的时间却在持续减少。如今,孩子每周用于玩耍的时间要比20年前少8个小时(Elkind 2008)。在不断提高的学业标准的压力之下,玩耍在幼儿园和小学正被准备考试所取代。那些希望助自己学龄前孩子一臂之力的家长们被引导相信,单词卡和具有教育意义的“玩具”才是通向成功的路径。我们的社会在玩耍与学习之间创造出一种错误的对立关系。


Through play, children learn to regulate their behavior, lay the foundations for later learning in science and mathematics, figure out the complex negotiations of social relationships, build a repertoire of creative problem-solving skills, and so much more. There is also an important role for adults in guiding children through playful learning opportunities.



Full consensus on a formal definition of play continues to elude the researchers and theorists who study it. Definitions range from discrete descriptions of various types of play such as physical, construction, language, or symbolic play (Miller & Almon 2009), to lists of broad criteria, based on observations and attitudes, that are meant to capture the essence of all play behaviors (e.g. Rubin et al. 1983).

研究玩耍的学者和理论家仍然没能就玩耍的正式定义达成一致。这些定义从对各种游戏松散的描述,比如身体的,搭建的,语言的或者象征性的游戏(Miller & Almon 2009),到基于观察与态度的一系列广泛标准。它们想要抓住所有玩耍行为的本质(如Rubin et al. 1983)。


A majority of the contemporary definitions of play focus on several key criteria. The founder of the National Institute for Play, Stuart Brown, has described play as ‘anything that spontaneously is done for its own sake’. More specifically, he says it ‘appears purposeless, produces pleasure and joy, [and] leads one to the next stage of mastery’ (as quoted in Tippett 2008). Similarly, Miller and Almon (2009) say that play includes ‘activities that are freely chosen and directed by children and arise from intrinsic motivation’. Often, play is defined along a continuum as more or less playful using the following set of behavioral and dispositional criteria (e.g. Rubin et al. 1983):

当代大多数关于玩耍的定义都聚焦于几个核心标准上。国家玩耍协会的创始人,Stuart Brown,将玩耍描述为“任何因其自身原因,自发性的行为”。更确切的说,他认为玩耍“似乎没有目的,产生快乐与愉悦,并通向自身掌控的下一阶段”(引用自Tippett 2008)。相似地,Miller与Almon(2009)认为玩耍包括“由孩子自由选择并进行的活动。这些活动源自他们自身内在的动力”。通常来说,玩耍根据下列行为与意向的标准,沿着按照好玩程度构成的连续体进行定义。

Play is pleasurable: Children must enjoy the activity or it is not play. It is intrinsically motivated: Children engage in play simply for the satisfaction the behavior itself brings. It has no extrinsically motivated function or goal. Play is process oriented: When children play, the means are more important than the ends. It is freely chosen, spontaneous and voluntary. If a child is pressured, they will likely not think of the activity as play. Play is actively engaged: Players must be physically and/or mentally involved in the activity. Play is non-literal. It involves make-believe.



According to this view, children’s playful behaviors can range in degree from 0% to 100% playful. Rubin and colleagues did not assign greater weight to any one dimension in determining playfulness; however, other researchers have suggested that process orientation and a lack of obvious functional purpose may be the most important aspects of play (e.g. Pellegrini 2009).



From the perspective of a continuum, play can thus blend with other motives and attitudes that are less playful, such as work. Unlike play, work is typically not viewed as enjoyable and it is extrinsically motivated (i.e. it is goal oriented). Researcher Joan Goodman (1994) suggested that hybrid forms of work and play are not a detriment to learning; rather, they can provide optimal contexts for learning. For example, a child may be engaged in a difficult, goal-directed activity set up by their teacher, but they may still be actively engaged and intrinsically motivated. At this mid-point between play and work, the child’s motivation, coupled with guidance from an adult, can create robust opportunities for playful learning.

从连续体的角度来看,玩耍可以与其他不那么好玩的动机和态度混合在一起,比如工作。不像玩耍,工作通常被认为是无趣的,并且由外在动机驱动(即目标导向)。研究者Joan Goodman(1994)认为,工作与玩耍的混合形式对学习没有损害。相反,他们能够文章来自老烤鸭雅思提供学习的最佳环境。例如,孩子可能参与到由老师设置的、具备一定难度的、并且是目标导向的某项活动,但他们仍然可能主动参与并且受内在动机驱使。在玩耍与工作的中间点,孩子的动机,再加上成人的指导,能够创造出游戏化学习的良好机会。


Critically, recent research supports the idea that adults can facilitate children’s learning while maintaining a playful approach in interactions known as ‘guided play’ (Fisher et al. 2011). The adult’s role in play varies as a function of their educational goals and the child’s developmental level (Hirsch-Pasek et al. 2009).

重要的是,最近的研究支持以下观点,即成人可以在维持玩耍路径的同时帮助孩子学习。这种互动被称为“引导式玩耍”(Fisher et al. 2011)。成人在玩耍中的角色根据他们教育目的功能的不同以及孩子发展阶段的不同而不同。


Guided play takes two forms. At a very basic level, adults can enrich the child’s environment by providing objects or experiences that promote aspects of a curriculum. In the more direct form of guided play, parents or other adults can support children’s play by joining in the fun as a co-player, raising thoughtful questions, commenting on children’s discoveries, or encouraging further exploration or new facets to the child’s activity. Although playful learning can be somewhat structured, it must also be child-centered (Nicolopolou et al. 2006). Play should stem from the child’s own desire.

引导式玩耍有两种形式。在十分基础的层面,成人可以通过提供促进课程某方面的物品或经历来丰富儿童的环境。在引导式玩耍更为直接的形式中,父母或其他成人可以作为玩家融入其中来支持孩子的游戏。他们可以提出引人思考的问题,评论孩子的发现,或者在孩子活动中鼓励进一步的探索或添加新的部分。虽然引导式学习可以稍微结构化,但它必须以孩子为中心(Nicolopolou et al. 2006)。玩耍必须源自孩子自身的意愿。


Both free and guided play are essential elements in a child-centered approach to playful learning. Intrinsically motivated free play provides the child with true autonomy, while guided play is an avenue through which parents and educators can provide more targeted learning experiences. In either case, play should be actively engaged, it should be predominantly child-directed, and it must be fun.


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