剑桥雅思14Test1Passage3阅读原文翻译 Motivational factors and the hospitality industry
剑桥雅思14 Test1 Passage3阅读原文翻译
A critical ingredient in the success of hotels is developing and maintaining superior performance from their employees. How is that accomplished? What Human Resource Management (HRM) practices should organizations invest in to acquire and retain great employees?
Some hotels aim to provide superior working conditions for their employees. The idea originated from workplaces – usually in the non-service sector — that emphasized fun and enjoyment as part of work-life balance. By contrast, the service sector, and more specifically hotels, has traditionally not extended these practices to address basic employee needs, such as good working conditions.
Pfeffer (1994) emphasizes that in order to succeed in a global business environment, organizations must make investment in Human Resource Management (HRM) to allow them to acquire employees who possess better skills and capabilities than their competitors. This investment will be to their competitive advantage. Despite this recognition of the importance of employee development, the hospitality industry has historically been dominated by underdeveloped HR practices (Lucas, 2002).
Lucas also points out that ‘the substance of HRM practices does not appear to be designed to foster constructive relations with employees or to represent a managerial approach that enables developing and drawing out the full potential of people, even though employees may be broadly satisfied with many aspects of their work’ (Lucas, 2002). In addition, or maybe as a result, high employee turnover has been a recurring problem throughout the hospitality industry. Among the many cited reasons are low compensation, inadequate benefits, poor working conditions and compromised employee morale and attitudes (Maroudas et al., 2008).
Lucas同时指出，“人力资源管理实践的内容被设计出来似乎并不是为了培养员工之间建设性的关系，或者呈现一种能够提升并挖掘人们所有潜能的管理方法，即使大体上来看，员工已经对工作的许多方面表示满意”（Lucas, 2002)。此外，或许正因如此，较高的员工流动率一直都是整个酒店行业反复出现的问题。之前被提及的许多原因包括：低薪酬，少福利，恶劣的工作环境，折衷的员工士气与态度（Maroudas et al., 2008）。
Ng and Sorensen (2008) demonstrated that when managers provide recognition to employees, motivate employees to work together, and remove obstacles preventing effective performance, employees feel more obligated to stay with the company. This was succinctly summarized by Michel et al. (2013): ‘[P]roviding support to employees gives them the confidence to perform their jobs better and the motivation to stay with the organization.’ Hospitality organizations can therefore enhance employee motivation and retention through the development and improvement of their working conditions. These conditions are inherently linked to the working environment.
Ng与Sorensen（2008）证实，当管理者认可员工，动员员工互相合作，并移除阻碍高效工作的障碍时，员工会感到更有义务留在这家公司。这一点由Michel et al. (2013)言简意赅的总结出来：“为员工提供支持给予了他们更好履行工作的自信以及留在该组织机构的动力”。因此，酒店行业可以通过提升改善员工的工作条件来加强他们的工作动力和稳定性。这些条件天然的与工作环境联系在一起。
While it seems likely that employees’ reactions to their job characteristics could be affected by a predisposition to view their work environment negatively, no evidence exists to support this hypothesis (Spector et al., 2000). However, given the opportunity, many people will find something to complain about in relation to their workplace (Poulston, 2009). There is a strong link between the perceptions of employees and particular factors of their work environment that are separate from the work itself, including company policies, salary and vacations.
虽然似乎员工对他们工作特点的反应会受到以消极态度看待自己工作环境的倾向的影响，但并没有证据支持这种假设（Spector et al., 2000）。然而，只要有机会，许多人都能找到工作环境的某些方面进行抱怨（Poulston, 2009）。在员工感受与其工作内容本身之外的工作条件（尤其是公司政策，薪水和休假）之间存在着很强的相关性。
Such conditions are particularly troubling for the luxury hotel market, where high-quality service, requiring a sophisticated approach to HRM, is recognized as a critical source of competitive advantage (Maroudas et al., 2008). In a real sense, the services of hotel employees represent their industry (Schneider and Bowen, 1993). This representation has commonly been limited to guest experiences. This suggests that there has been a dichotomy between the guest environment provided in luxury hotels and the working conditions of their employees.
这样的情况对于高端酒店市场来说尤其麻烦。在这个领域中，需要借助一套成熟完善的HRM方法来实现的高品质服务，被认为是竞争优势的一个核心来源（Maroudas et al., 2008）。从真正意义上来讲，酒店员工的服务就代表着他们的行业（Scheneider and Bowen, 1993）。这种代表性通常仅限于顾客体验。这意味着高端酒店所提供的顾客环境与他们员工的工作环境之间存在着天壤之别。
It is therefore essential for hotel management to develop HRM practices that enable them to inspire and retain competent employees. This requires an understanding of what motivates employees at different levels of management and different stages of their careers (Enz and Siguaw, 2000). This implies that it is beneficial for hotel managers to understand what practices are most favorable to increase employee satisfaction and retention.
因此，酒店管理人员提升人力资源操作从而激励并留住高水平的员工十分有必要。这就需要理解在不同的管理层级与不同的职业发展阶段哪些东西能够激励员工（Enz and Siguaw, 2000）。这意味着，对于酒店管理人员来说，了解哪些操作能够最有效地提升员工的满意度和留职率很有好处。
Herzberg (1966) proposes that people have two major types of needs, the first being extrinsic motivation factors relating to the context in which work is performed, rather than the work itself. These include working conditions and job security. When these factors are unfavorable, job dissatisfaction may result. Significantly, though, just fulfilling these needs does not result in satisfaction, but only in the reduction of dissatisfaction (Maroudas et al., 2008).
Employees also have intrinsic motivation needs or motivators, which include such factors as achievement and recognition. Unlike extrinsic factors, motivator factors may ideally result in job satisfaction (Maroudas et al., 2008). Herzberg’s (1966) theory discusses the need for a ‘balance’ of these two types of needs.
员工也有内在的激励需求或者驱动力。这包括成就和认同等因素。不像外在因素，激励因素文章来自老烤鸭雅思可能能够完美地提升工作满意度（Maroundas et al., 2008）。Herzberg（1966）的理论探讨了在这两种需求之间寻找平衡的必要性。
The impact of fun as a motivating factor at work has also been explored. For example, Tews, Michel and Stafford (2013) conducted a study focusing on staff from a chain of themed restaurants in the United States, It was found that fun activities had a favorable impact on performance and manager support for fun had a favorable impact in reducing turnover. Their findings support the view that fun may indeed have a beneficial effect, but the framing of that fun must be carefully aligned with both organizational goals and employee characteristics. ‘Managers must learn how to achieve the delicate balance of allowing employees the freedom to enjoy themselves at work while simultaneously maintaining high levels of performance’ (Tews et al., 2013).
Deery (2008) has recommended several actions that can be adopted at the organizational level to retain good staff as well as assist in balancing work and family life. Those particularly appropriate to the hospitality industry include allowing adequate breaks during the working day, staff functions that involve families, and providing health and well-being opportunities.