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剑桥雅思14Test1Passage1阅读原文翻译 The Importance of Children&#8 […]

剑桥雅思14Test1Passage1阅读原文翻译 The Importance of Children’s Play 孩子玩耍的重要性



剑桥雅思14Test1Passage1阅读答案解析 The Importance of Children’s Play 孩子玩耍的重要性

剑桥雅思14 Test1 Passage1阅读原文翻译


Brick by brick, six-year-old Alice is building a magical kingdom. Imagining fairy-tale turrets and fire-breathing dragons, wicked witches and gallant heroes, she’s creating an enchanting world. Although she isn’t aware of it, this fantasy is helping her take her first steps towards her capacity for creativity and so it will have important repercussions in her adult life.



Minutes later, Alice has abandoned the kingdom in favour of playing schools with her younger brother. When she bosses him around as his ‘teacher’, she’s practising how to regulate her emotions through pretence. Later on, when they tire of this and settle down with a board game, she’s learning about the need to follow rules and take turns with a partner.



‘Play in all its rich variety is one of the highest achievements of the human species,’ says Dr David Whitebread from the Faculty of Education at the University of Cambridge, UK. ‘It underpins how we develop as intellectual, problem-solving adults and is crucial to our success as a highly adaptable species.’

“形式极其丰富的游戏是人类最伟大的成就之一”,英国剑桥大学教育学院的David Whitebread博士说。“它为我们成长为有智慧,具备问题解决能力的成年人奠定基础,也对我们作为一个具备高度适应能力的物种的成功至关重要”。


Recognising the importance of play is not new: over two millennia ago, the Greek philosopher Plato extolled its virtues as a means of developing skills for adult life, and ideas about play-based learning have been developing since the 19th century.



But we live in changing times, and Whitebread is mindful of a worldwide decline in play, pointing out that over half the people in the world now live in cities. ‘The opportunities for free play, which I experienced almost every day of my childhood, are becoming increasingly scarce,’ he says. Outdoor play is curtailed by perceptions of risk to do with traffic, as well as parents’ increased wish to protect their children from being the victims of crime, and by the emphasis on ‘earlier is better’ which is leading to greater competition in academic learning and schools.



International bodies like the United Nations and the European Union have begun to develop policies concerned with children’s right to play, and to consider implications for leisure facilities and educational programmes. But what they often lack is the evidence to base policies on.



‘The type of play we are interested in is child-initiated, spontaneous and unpredictable – but, as soon as you ask a five-year-old “to play”, then you as the researcher have intervened,’ explains Dr Sara Baker. ‘And we want to know what the long-term impact of play is. It’s a real challenge.’

“我们感兴趣的游戏类型是儿童自己创造的、自发进行的和不可预测的-但是,只要你让一个5岁的孩子玩耍,那么你作为研究人员就已经介入其中”,Sara Baker博士解释道。“我们想要了解的是玩耍的长期影响。这才是真正的挑战”。


Dr Jenny Gibson agrees, pointing out that although some of the steps in the puzzle of how and why play is important have been looked at, there is very little data on the impact it has on the child’s later life.

Jenny Gibson博士同意以上观点并指出,虽然在游戏有多么重要重要、以及为什么如此重要的这个谜题中,有一些阶段已经得到了研究,但在它对孩子日后生活的影响上,数据仍然十分稀少。


Now, thanks to the university’s new Centre for Research on Play in Education, Development and Learning (PEDAL), Whitebread, Baker, Gibson and a team of researchers hope to provide evidence on the role played by play in how a child develops.

现在,由于这所大学新成立了“教育发展学习型游戏研究中心,Whitebread, Baker, Gibson这些人和一支研究团队希望能够为游戏在儿童发展过程中所扮演的角色提供相关证据。


‘A strong possibility is that play supports the early development of children’s self-control,’ explains Baker. ‘This is our ability to develop awareness of our own thinking processes — it influences how effectively we go about undertaking challenging activities.’

“很有可能,游戏推动了儿童自我控制能力的早期发展”,Baker解释道。“这种能力使我们意识到自身的思考过程 – 它影响着我们从事有挑战活动的效果”。


In a study carried out by Baker with toddlers and young pre-schoolers, she found that children with greater self-control solved problems more quickly when exploring an unfamiliar set-up requiring scientific reasoning. ‘This sort of evidence makes us think that giving children the chance to play will make them more successful problem-solvers in the long run.’



If playful experiences do facilitate this aspect of development, say the researchers, it could be extremely significant for educational practices, because the ability to self-regulate has been shown to be a key predictor of academic performance.



Gibson adds: ‘Playful behaviour is also an important indicator of healthy social and emotional development. In my previous research, I investigated how observing children at play can give us important clues about their well-being and can even be useful in the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.’



Whitebread’s recent research has involved developing a play-based approach to supporting children’s writing. ‘Many primary school children find writing difficult, but we showed in a previous study that a playful stimulus was far more effective than an instructional one.’ Children wrote longer and better-structured stories when they first played with dolls representing characters in the story. In the latest study, children first created their story with Lego*, with similar results. ‘Many teachers commented that they had always previously had children saying they didn’t know what to write about. With the Lego building, however, not a single child said this through the whole year of the project.’



Whitebread, who directs PEDAL, trained as a primary school teacher in the early 1970s, when, as he describes, ‘the teaching of young children was largely a quiet backwater, untroubled by any serious intellectual debate or controversy.’ Now, the landscape is very different, with hotly debated topics such as school starting age.

PEDAL中心的主任Whitebread在20世纪70年代早期接受过小学教师的培训。他这样描述当时的情况:“幼儿教育如同一潭死水一般, 不会受到任何严肃学术讨论或者争议的影响”。现在的情况完全不同,出现了诸如上学年龄这样备受争论的问题。


‘Somehow the importance of play has been lost in recent decades. It’s regarded as something trivial, or even as something negative that contrasts with “work”. Let’s not lose sight of its benefits, and the fundamental contributions it makes to human achievements in the arts, sciences and technology. Let’s make sure children have a rich diet of play experiences.’


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