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剑桥雅思16Test1Passage2阅读原文翻译 The Step Pyramid of Djoser 乔塞 […]


剑桥雅思16Test1Passage2阅读原文翻译 The Step Pyramid of Djoser 乔塞尔阶梯金字塔



剑桥雅思16Test1Passage2阅读答案解析 The Step Pyramid of Djoser 乔塞尔阶梯金字塔

剑桥雅思16 Test1 Passage2阅读原文翻译



The pyramids are the most famous monuments of ancient Egypt and still hold enormous interest for people in the present day. These grand, impressive tributes to the memory of the Egyptian kings have become linked with the country even though other cultures, such as the Chinese and Mayan, also built pyramids. The evolution of the pyramid form has been written and argued about for centuries. However, there is no question that, as far as Egypt is concerned, it began with one monument to one king designed by one brilliant architect: the Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara.



Djoser was the first king of the Third Dynasty of Egypt and the first to build in stone. Prior to Djoser’s reign, tombs were rectangular monuments made of dried clay brick, which covered underground passages where the deceased person was buried. For reasons which remain unclear, Djoser’s main official, whose name was Imhotep, conceived of building a taller, more impressive tomb for his king by stacking stone slabs on top of one another, progressively making them smaller, to form the shape now known as the Step Pyramid. Djoser is thought to have reigned for 19 years, but some historians and scholars attribute a much longer time for his rule, owing to the number and size of the monuments he built.



The Step Pyramid has been thoroughly examined and investigated over the last century, and it is now known that the building process went through many different stages. Historian Marc Van de Mieroop comments on this, writing ‘Much experimentation was involved, which is especially clear in the construction of the pyramid in the center of the complex. It had several plans …before it became the first Step Pyramid in history, piling six levels on top of one another…The weight of the enormous mass was a challenge for the builders, who placed the stones at an inward incline in order to prevent the monument breaking up.’

阶梯金字塔在上个世纪已经经过彻底的检验和调查。我们如今知道其建造过程要经过许多不同的阶段。历史学家Marc Van de Mieroop对此评论道:“其中涉及许多实验。这一点在作为建筑群核心的金字塔的建造过程中尤为明显。在它真正成为历史上的阶梯金字塔之前,存在好几种方案,堆叠起六层的高度。大型石块的重量给建造者提出挑战。他们将石块向内倾斜,以防止建筑物分崩离析”。


When finally completed, the Step Pyramid rose 62 meters high and was the tallest structure of its time. The complex in which it was built was the size of a city in ancient Egypt and included a temple, courtyards, shrines, and living quarters for the priests. It covered a region of 16 hectares and was surrounded by a wall 10.5 meters high. The wall had 13 false doors cut into it with only one true entrance cut into the south-east corner; the entire wall was then ringed by a trench 750 meters long and 40 meters wide. The false doors and the trench were incorporated into the complex to discourage unwanted visitors. If someone wished to enter, he or she would have needed to know in advance how to find the location of the true opening in the wall. Djoser was so proud of his accomplishment that he broke the tradition of having only his own name on the monument and had Imhotep’s name carved on it as well.



The burial chamber of the tomb, where the king’s body was laid to rest, was dug beneath the base of the pyramid, surrounded by a vast maze of long tunnels that had rooms off them to discourage robbers. One of the most mysterious discoveries found inside the pyramid was a large number of stone vessels. Over 40,000 of these vessels, of various forms and shapes, were discovered in storerooms off the pyramid’s underground passages. This article is from Laokaoya website. They are inscribed with the names of rulers from the First and Second Dynasties of Egypt and made from different kinds of stone. There is no agreement among scholars and archaeologists on why the vessels were placed in the tomb of Djoser or what they were supposed to represent. The archaeologist Jean-Philippe Lauer, who excavated most of the pyramid and complex, believes they were originally stored and then given a ‘proper burial’ by Djoser in his pyramid to honor his predecessors. There are other historians, however, who claim the vessels were dumped into the shafts as yet another attempt to prevent grave robbers from getting to the king’s burial chamber.

坟墓中的墓室,也就是安放国王遗体的地方,位于金字塔地基之下,环绕着由漫长甬道所组成的迷宫,以阻止盗墓贼。金字塔内最让人不解的发现之一是大量的石制器具。金字塔地下通道外的储藏室里发现了超过40000个各式各样的容器。它们上面刻着埃及第一王朝和第二王朝统治者的名字,并且用不同的石头制成。学者和考古学家针对为什么这些容器被放在乔塞尔的坟墓里,以及它们究竟代表什么东西尚未达成共识。发掘了大部分金字塔与建筑群的考古学家Jean-Philippe Lauer认为,它们被乔塞尔储藏在自己的金字塔中,并给予恰当的葬礼,以显示对其前任的尊敬。然而,也有其他历史学家认为,这些容器被丢到通道中,作为阻止盗墓贼接近国王墓室的另一种尝试。


Unfortunately, all of the precautions and intricate design of the underground network did not prevent ancient robbers from finding a way in. Djoser’s grave goods, and even his body, were stolen at some point in the past and all archaeologists found were a small number of his valuables overlooked by the thieves. There was enough left throughout the pyramid and its complex, however, to astonish and amaze the archaeologists who excavated it.



Egyptologist Miroslav Verner writes, ‘Few monuments hold a place in human history as significant as that of the Step Pyramid in Saqqara …It can be said without exaggeration that this pyramid complex constitutes a milestone in the evolution of monumental stone architecture in Egypt and in the world as a whole.’ The Step Pyramid was a revolutionary advance in architecture and became the archetype which all the other great pyramid builders of Egypt would follow.

埃及学家Miroslav Verner写到,“人类历史上很少有建筑物像塞加拉的阶梯金字塔那么重要。毫不夸张的说,金字塔建筑群是埃及、乃至整个世界重要石制建筑物进化史上的里程碑”。阶梯金字塔是建筑学革命性的突破,成为埃及所有其他金字塔建造者仿效的典范。

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