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剑桥雅思16Test3Passage1阅读原文翻译 Roman shipbuilding and naviga […]

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剑桥雅思16Test3Passage1阅读原文翻译 Roman shipbuilding and navigation 罗马造船与航海

剑桥雅思16阅读第三套题目第一篇文章的主题为罗马造船与航海。文章一共7段,可以分为三大部分,分别介绍了古罗马的造船工艺,战舰和商船的特点,以及当时的海上运输。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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剑桥雅思16Test3Passage1阅读答案解析 Roman shipbuilding and navigation 罗马造船与航海

剑桥雅思16 Test3 Passage1阅读原文翻译

第1段

Shipbuilding today is based on science and ships are built using computers and sophisticated tools. Shipbuilding in ancient Rome, however, was more of an art relying on estimation, inherited techniques and personal experience. The Romans were not traditionally sailors but mostly land-based people, who learned to build ships from the people that they conquered, namely the Greeks and the Egyptians.

现代造船业建立在科技之上。人们利用电脑和精密的工具建造船只。然而,古罗马的造船业更多的是一种依赖于判断,祖传技术以及个人经验的艺术。罗马人以前并不是水手,大部分人都在陆地上生活。他们从自己占领区的人们那里(希腊人和埃及人)学会如何建造船舶。

第2段

There are a few surviving written documents that give descriptions and representations of ancient Roman ships, including the sails and rigging. Excavated vessels also provide some clues about ancient shipbuilding techniques. Studies of these have taught us that ancient Roman shipbuilders built the outer hull first, then proceeded with the frame and the rest of the ship. Planks used to build the outer hull were initially sewn together. Starting from the 6th century BCE, they were fixed using a method called mortise and tenon, whereby one plank locked into another without the need for stitching. Then in the first centuries of the current era, Mediterranean shipbuilders shifted to another shipbuilding method, still in use today, which consisted of building the frame first and then proceeding with the hull and the other components of the ship. This method was more systematic and dramatically shortened ship construction times. The ancient Romans built large merchant ships and warships whose size and technology were unequalled until the 16th century CE.

有几份留存的文档描述了古罗马的船只,包括其风帆和绳索。考古发掘出来的轮船也为了解古代造船技术提供了一些线索。对这些东西的研究让我们得知,古罗马船匠首先建造外面的船身,然后才进行到框架和其余的部分。用于建造船身的木板一开始就被拼接在一起。从公元前六世纪开始,人们使用一种被称为榫 卯结构的方法(一块木板与另一块锁定,不需要缝补)将它们固定住。到了公元一世纪,地中海的造船者转向另一种如今仍在使用的造船方法,即先建造框架,然后是船体和船只的其他部分。这一方法更为系统,极大的缩减了船只的建造时间。古罗马人建造出大型商船和战舰。其尺寸和所涉及的技术一直到16世纪才有人可以匹敌。

第3段

Warships were built to be lightweight and very speedy. They had to be able to sail near the coast, which is why they had no ballast or excess load and were built with a long, narrow hull. They did not sink when damaged and often would lie crippled on the sea’s surface following naval battles. They had a bronze battering ram, which was used to pierce the timber hulls or break the oars of enemy vessels. Warships used both wind (sails) and human power (oarsmen)and were therefore very fast. Eventually, Rome’s navy became the largest and most powerful in the Mediterranean, and the Romans had control over what they therefore called Mare Nostrum meaning ‘our sea’.

战舰重量较轻,速度很快。它们必须能在近海航行。这也是它们为什么没有压舱物或额外负重,并且船体狭长的原因。它们受损之后不会沉没,而是在海战后残缺不全的飘在海面上。它们装有青铜撞角,用来刺穿木制船体或者破坏敌方船只的船桨。战舰同时使用风力和人力,所以速度很快。最终,罗马海军成为地中海规模最大、力量最强的舰队。罗马人控制这这片海域,将其称之为“我们的海”(内海)。

第4段

There were many kinds of warship. The ‘trireme’ was the dominant warship from the 7th to 4th century BCE. It had rowers in the top, middle and lower levels, and approximately 50 rowers in each bank. The rowers at the bottom had the most uncomfortable position as they were under the other rowers and were exposed to the water entering through the oar-holes. This article is from Laokaoya website. It is worth noting that contrary to popular perception, rowers were not slaves but mostly Roman citizens enrolled in the military. The trireme was superseded by larger ships with even more rowers.

有许多种不同的战舰。“三层划桨战船”是公元前7世纪到公元前4世纪的主力。它在上中下三层都配备了划桨者,每层50人。底层的划桨者位置最不舒服,因为他们位于其他划桨者之下,而且会接触到从划桨口进来的水。值得注意的是,与大多数人的认知相反,大部分划桨者并不是奴隶,而是加入军队的罗马公民。

第5段

Merchant ships were built to transport lots of cargo over long distances and at a reasonable cost. They had a wider hull, double planking and a solid interior for added stability. Unlike warships, their V-shaped hull was deep underwater, meaning that they could not sail too close to the coast. They usually had two huge side rudders located off the stern and controlled by a small tiller bar connected to a system of cables. They had from one to three masts with large square sails and a small triangular sail at the bow. Just like warships, merchant ships used oarsmen, but coordinating the hundreds of rowers in both types of ship was not an easy task. In order to assist them, music would be played on an instrument, and oars would then keep time with this.

商船被用来以合理的成本远距离运输货物。它们拥有更宽的串题,双层甲板,以及加固的内部以增加稳定性。跟战舰不一样,他们的V型船体吃水很深。这意味着他们无法在太过靠近海岸的地方航行。它们在船尾拥有两个巨大的侧舵,通过与缆绳系统相连接的小型舵柄进行控制。它们拥有一到三根桅杆,装配着巨大的方形风帆,在船头还有一张小型三角风帆。与战舰一样,商船需要人划桨。但在两种船型中,协调数百名划桨者并不是一项简单的任务。为了辅助它们,音乐通过工具被播放出来,而划桨者则跟着音乐的节奏。

第6段

The cargo on merchant ships included raw materials (e.g. iron bars, copper, marble and granite), and agricultural products (e.g. grain from Egypt’s Nile valley). During the Empire, Rome was a huge city by ancient standards of about one million inhabitants. Goods from all over the world would come to the city through the port of Pozzuoli situated west of the bay of Naples in Italy and through the gigantic port of Ostia situated at the mouth of the Tiber River. Large merchant ships would approach the destination port and, just like today, be intercepted by a number of towboats that would drag them to the quay.

商船上的货物包括原材料(如铁棒,铜,大理石和花岗岩)和农产品(如来自埃及尼罗河谷的小麦)。在帝国时期,罗马文章来自老烤鸭雅思是座巨型城市,按照古代标准,拥有100万的居民。通过意大利位于那不勒斯湾西侧的波佐力港和位于台伯河河口的奥斯提亚港,来自全世界的物品汇聚在这座城市里。大型商船会靠近目的港口,然后跟今天一样,被一些牵引船拦截,将它们拖进港口。

第7段

The time of travel along the many sailing routes could vary widely. Navigation in ancient Rome did not rely on sophisticated instruments such as compasses but on experience, local knowledge and observation of natural phenomena. In conditions of good visibility, seamen in the Mediterranean often had the mainland or islands in sight, which greatly facilitated navigation. They sailed by noting their position relative to a succession of recognisable landmarks. When weather conditions were not good or where land was no longer visible, Roman mariners estimated directions from the pole star or, with less accuracy, from the Sun at noon. They also estimated directions relative to the wind and swell. Overall, shipping in ancient Roman times resembled shipping today with large vessels regularly crossing the seas and bringing supplies from their Empire.

不同航海路线所需要的航行时间差别很大。古罗马时期的导航并不依赖于诸如罗盘这样精密的工具,而是依靠经验、当地知识和对自然现象的观察。在视野清晰的条件下,地中海上的海员经常能够看到大陆或者岛屿。这极大地方便了导航的进行。他们通过注意自己与一系列可辨识路标的相对位置来航行。当天气条件不好,或者看不到陆地的时候,罗马水手会通过北极星,或者正午的太阳来辨认方向。后者准确度不高。他们也会通过风和海浪辨认方向。整体而言,古罗马时期的船运跟今天十分类似。大型船只经常穿越海洋,从帝国带来补给。

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