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剑桥雅思16Test2Passage3阅读原文翻译 How to make wise decisions 如何 […]

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剑桥雅思16Test2Passage3阅读原文翻译 How to make wise decisions 如何做出明智的决策

剑桥雅思16阅读第二套题目第三部分的主题为如何做出明智的决策。文章一共10段,主要介绍了智慧其实取决于具体的情景,以及衡量智慧的四个维度。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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剑桥雅思16Test2Passage3阅读答案解析 How to make wise decisions 如何做出明智的决定

剑桥雅思16 Test2 Passage3阅读原文翻译

第1段

Across cultures, wisdom has been considered one of the most revered human qualities. Although the truly wise may seem few and far between, empirical research examining wisdom suggests that it isn’t an exceptional trait possessed by a small handful of bearded philosophers after all – in fact, the latest studies suggest that most of us have the ability to make wise decisions, given the right context.

各个文化中,智慧一直都被认为是最受尊敬的人类品质之一。虽然真正的智慧似乎十分稀少罕见,但针对智慧的实证研究发现,它并不是一种只有少部分长满胡子的哲学家才拥有的独特品质。事实上,最新的研究表明,在正确情景下,我们大多数人都有做出明智决定的能力。

第2段

‘It appears that experiential, situational, and cultural factors are even more powerful in shaping wisdom than previously imagined,’ says Associate Professor Igor Grossmann of the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. ‘Recent empirical findings from cognitive, developmental, social, and personality psychology cumulatively suggest that people’s ability to reason wisely varies dramatically across experiential and situational contexts. Understanding the role of such contextual factors offers unique insights into understanding wisdom in daily life, as well as how it can be enhanced and taught.’

“经验、情景和文化因素在塑造智慧方面似乎比我们之前想象的还要重要”,位于加拿大安大略省滑铁卢大学的副教授Igor Grossmann说。“最近来自认知心理学,发展心理学,社会心理学和个性心理学的实证研究逐渐发现,人们进行智慧思考的能力在不同的经验和情景下出现巨大差异。理解这些背景因素为我们理解日常生活中的智慧,以及它如何被加强和传授提供了独特的角度”。

第3段

It seems that it’s not so much that some people simply possess wisdom and others lack it, but that our ability to reason wisely depends on a variety of external factors. ‘It is impossible to characterize thought processes attributed to wisdom without considering the role of contextual factors,’ explains Grossmann. ‘In other words, wisdom is not solely an “inner quality” but rather unfolds as a function of situations people happen to be in. Some situations are more likely to promote wisdom than others.’

事情似乎并不简单是一些人拥有智慧而其他人没有智慧,我们明智思考的能力取决于各种外部因素。“不考虑背景因素的作用,就不可能总结出被归为智慧的思考过程的特点”,Grossmann解释道。“换句话说,智慧不仅仅是一种内部品质,而是人们所处情景的功能的展现。一些情景比其他情景更有可能促进智慧发展”。

第4段

Coming up with a definition of wisdom is challenging, but Grossmann and his colleagues have identified four key characteristics as part of a framework of wise reasoning. One is intellectual humility or recognition of the limits of our own knowledge, and another is appreciation of perspectives wider than the issue at hand. Sensitivity to the possibility of change in social relations is also key, along with compromise or integration of different attitudes and beliefs.

给智慧下定义很困难,但Grossmann和他的同事已经界定出四个关键点,作为智慧思考框架的一部分。一个是智力谦逊,或者说承认我们知识的有限性,另一个是对比收头问题更广泛的解决方法的欣赏。对社会关系变化的可能性保持敏感也是关键之一,以及不同态度与观点之间的妥协或者融合。

第5段

Grossmann and his colleagues have also found that one of the most reliable ways to support wisdom in our own day-to-day decisions is to look at scenarios from a third-party perspective, as though giving advice to a friend. Research suggests that when adopting a first-person viewpoint we focus on ‘the focal features of the environment’ and when we adopt a third-person, ‘observer’ viewpoint we reason more broadly and focus more on interpersonal and moral ideals such as justice and impartiality. Looking at problems from this more expansive viewpoint appears to foster cognitive processes related to wise decisions.

Grossmann和他的同事还发现,在我们日常决策中,支撑智慧最可靠的方式之一就是从第三方角度看待问题,就像给朋友提建议一样。研究表明,当我们采用第一视角的时候,我们关注环境的核心特征,而当我们采用第三方、观察者视角的时候,我们文章来自老烤鸭雅思会进行更广泛的思考,更加关注人际关系和道德理想,比如公平公正。从更加宽泛的视角看待问题似乎有助于促进与明智决策相关的认知过程。

第5段

What are we to do, then, when confronted with situations like a disagreement with a spouse or negotiating a contract at work, that require us to take a personal stake? Grossmann argues that even when we aren’t able to change the situation, we can still evaluate these experiences from different perspectives.

当面对与配偶意见不一致或者在工作上沟通合同这样需要我们进行个人决策的情景时,我们该如何做呢?Grossmann认为,即便我们无法改变这一情景,我们仍然可以从不同的角度对这些经验进行评估。

第7段

For example, in one experiment that took place during the peak of a recent economic recession, graduating college seniors were asked to reflect on their job prospects. This article is from Laokaoya website. The students were instructed to imagine their career either ‘as if you were a distant observer’ or ‘before your own eyes as if you were right there’. Participants in the group assigned to the distant observer’ role displayed more wisdom-related reasoning (intellectual humility and recognition of change) than did participants in the control group.

例如,在一项于近期经济衰退到顶点时进行的实验中,大学毕业生被要求对他们的职业前景进行思考。实验人员指示学生从不同角度想象自己的工作,要么当自己是一个中立的观察者,要么当自己是当事人。相比于控制组的参与者而言,从中立观察者角度出发的参与者展现出更多与智慧相关的思考(智力谦逊与认识到变化)。

第8段

In another study, couples in long-term romantic relationships were instructed to visualize an unresolved relationship conflict either through the eyes of an outsider or from their own perspective. Participants then discussed the incident with their partner for 10 minutes, after which they wrote down their thoughts about it. Couples in the ‘other’s eyes’ condition were significantly more likely to rely on wise reasoning – recognizing others’ perspectives and searching for a compromise -compared to the couples in the egocentric condition.

在另一项研究中,拥有长期浪漫关系的夫妻被要求从外人角度或者从他们自己的角度想象一项未能解决的人际冲突,随后参与者与他们的伴侣针对这一问题进行10分钟的讨论。然后他们写下自己的想法。与从自我角度出发的夫妻相比,从他人角度出发的夫妻明显更有可能进行明智的思考-接受他人的观点,并寻求妥协。

第9段

‘Ego-decentering promotes greater focus on others and enables a bigger picture, conceptual view of the experience, affording recognition of intellectual humility and change,’ says Grossmann.

“不那么以自我为中心会让人们更加关注他人,从更宽广的视角对体验形成概念化的认知,从而意识到知识的有限性和改变”,Grossmann说。

第10段

We might associate wisdom with intelligence or particular personality traits, but research shows only a small positive relationship between wise thinking and crystallized intelligence and the personality traits of openness and agreeableness. ‘It is remarkable how much people can vary in their wisdom from one situation to the next, and how much stronger such contextual effects are for understanding the relationship between wise judgment and its social and affective outcomes as compared to the generalized “traits”‘, Grossmann explains. ‘That is, knowing how wisely a person behaves in a given situation is more informative for understanding their emotions or likelihood to forgive [or] retaliate as compared to knowing whether the person may be wise “in general”‘.

我们可能会将智慧与智力或者特定的性格联系起来,但研究表明,智慧与明晰的智力以及开放、宜人的性格特点之间只有微弱的联系。“人们的智慧在不同情境中的差异之大让人震惊,而背景因素对于理解明智决策与其社会和情感结果之间关系的作用也要比普遍的性格特点有用很多”,Grossmann解释道。“了解一个人在特定情景下的表现有多么智慧或者有多大可能进行原谅或者报复,比了解这个人是否大体智慧要能够提供更多的信息”。

剑桥雅思16Test2Passage1阅读原文翻译 The White Horse of Uffington 阿芬顿的白马

剑桥雅思16Test2Passage2阅读原文翻译 I contain multitudes 微生物

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