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剑桥雅思16Test1Passage1阅读原文翻译 Why we need to protect polar […]

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剑桥雅思16Test1Passage1阅读原文翻译 Why we need to protect polar bears 我们为什么要保护北极熊

剑桥雅思16阅读第一套题目第一篇文章阐述了我们保护北极熊的原因。文章一共8段,分别讲述了北极熊对于研究人类心脏病、糖尿病和骨质疏松等疾病的意义,以及它们不仅充满智慧,而且富有情感的形象。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读具体题目的答案解析

剑桥雅思16Test1Passage1阅读答案解析 Why we need to protect polar bears 我们为什么要保护北极熊

剑桥雅思16 Test1 Passage1阅读原文翻译

第1段

Polar bears are being increasingly threatened by the effects of climate change, but their disappearance could have far-reaching consequences. They are uniquely adapted to the extreme conditions of the Arctic Circle, where temperatures can reach-40°C. One reason for this is that they have up to 11 centimetres of fat underneath their skin. Humans with comparative levels of adipose tissue would be considered obese and would be likely to suffer from diabetes and heart disease. Yet the polar bear experiences no such consequences.

北极熊正日益受到气候变化的威胁,它们的消失可能产生影响深远的结果。它们十分适应北极圈的极端条件。那里的温度可以达到零下40度。其原因之一是,它们皮肤之下有着厚达11厘米的脂肪层。拥有类似脂肪组织的人类会被认为是过度肥胖,并可能遭受糖尿病和心脏病的折磨。然而,北极熊身上并没有出现以上情况。

第2段

A 2014 study by Shi Ping Liu and colleagues sheds light on this mystery. They compared the genetic structure of polar bears with that of their closest relatives from a warmer climate, the brown bears. This allowed them to determine the genes that have allowed polar bears to survive in one of the toughest environments on Earth. Liu and his colleagues found the polar bears had a gene known as APoB, which reduces levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) – a form of ‘bad’ cholesterol. In humans, mutations of this gene are associated with increased risk of heart disease. Polar bears may therefore be an important study model to understand heart disease in humans.

Shi Ping Liu及其同事在2014年进行的一项研究帮助解答了这一谜题。他们比较了北极熊和棕熊(生活在温暖气候中的北极熊的近亲)的基因。这让他们得以确定究竟是哪个基因片段让北极熊能够在地球上最严酷的环境条件下生存。Liu和他的同事发现,北极熊有着被称为APoB的基因段。它可以减少低密度脂肪蛋白的水平(一种有害的胆固醇)。人类中,这一基因的变异会提升患上心脏病的危险。因此,北极熊可能对于理解人类心脏病有着重要意义。

第3段

The genome of the polar bear may also provide the solution for another condition, one that particularly affects our older generation: osteoporosis. This is a disease where bones show reduced density, usually caused by insufficient exercise, reduced calcium intake or food starvation. Bone tissue is constantly being remodelled, meaning that bone is added or removed, depending on nutrient availability and the stress that the bone is under. This article is from Laokaoya website. Female polar bears, however, undergo extreme conditions during every pregnancy. Once autumn comes around, these females will dig maternity dens in the snow and will remain there throughout the winter, both before and after the birth of their cubs. This process results in about six months of fasting, where the female bears have to keep themselves and their cubs alive, depleting their own calcium and calorie reserves. Despite this, their bones remain strong and dense.

北极熊的基因图谱也可能包含着另一项严重影响着老年人的疾病-骨质疏松-的解决方案。这是一种骨头密度变低的疾病,通常由锻炼不足,钙摄入量减少或者食物缺乏造成。骨骼组织不断重塑,要么增加要么减少,具体取决于人们的营养状况以及骨头所承担的压力。然而,雌性北极熊每次怀孕的时候都会经历极端状况。一旦秋天来临,这些雌性文章来自老烤鸭雅思会在积雪中挖出供怀孕时使用的洞穴,整个冬天都待在里面,无论是产崽前还是产崽后。这一过程会导致长达六个月的禁食,而雌性北极熊必须保证自己和幼崽的存活,不断消耗自己的钙和能量储备。尽管如此,它们的骨骼依然强壮紧密。

第4段

Physiologists Alanda Lennox and Allen Goodship found an explanation for this paradox in 2008. They discovered that pregnant bears were able to increase the density of their bones before they started to build their dens. In addition, six months later, when they finally emerged from the den with their cubs, there was no evidence of significant loss of bone density. Hibernating brown bears do not have this capacity and must therefore resort to major bone reformation in the following spring. If the mechanism of bone remodelling in polar bears can be understood, many bedridden humans, and even astronauts, could potentially benefit.

生理学家Alanda Lennox和Allen Goodship于2008年解释了这一矛盾现象。他们发现怀孕的北极熊能够在开始建造兽穴之前提升自己的骨骼密度。此外,六个月后,当它们带着幼崽一起从洞穴中出来的时候,没有任何证据表明,他们的骨骼密度有明显下降。冬眠的棕熊并不具备这种能力,因此他们必须在接下来的春天进行大量的骨骼重塑。如果我们能够理解北极熊骨骼重塑的机制,许多卧床不起的人类,甚至是宇航员,都能够从中受益。

第5段

The medical benefits of the polar bear for humanity certainly have their importance in our conservation efforts, but these should not be the only factors taken into consideration. We tend to want to protect animals we think are intelligent and possess emotions, such as elephants and primates. Bears, on the other hand, seem to be perceived as stupid and in many cases violent. And yet anecdotal evidence from the field challenges those assumptions, suggesting for example that polar bears have good problem-solving abilities. A male bear called GoGo in Tennoji Zoo, Osaka, has even been observed making use of a tool to manipulate his environment. The bear used a tree branch on multiple occasions to dislodge a piece of meat hung out of his reach. Problem-solving ability has also been witnessed in wild polar bears, although not as obviously as with GoGo. A calculated move by a male bear involved running and jumping onto barrels in an attempt to get to a photographer standing on a platform four metres high.

北极熊对于人类医疗的积极影响当然是我们采取保护行动的重要原因,但这不应该是唯一的因素。我们总是倾向于保护我们认为聪明或者拥有情感的动物,如大象和灵长类动物。相比之下,熊在很多情况下被认为是愚蠢的,甚至是危险的。然而,这一领域的传闻对这些假设提出挑战,证明北极熊拥有很好的解决问题的能力。大阪Tennoji动物园一只叫做GoGo的雄性北极熊被观察到利用工具操控自己的环境。他在多个场合利用树枝取下挂在自己够不着的地方的肉。问题解决能力也能够在野生北极熊身上观察到,虽然不像GoGo那么明显。一只雄性北极熊仔细规划自己的策略,助跑跳上油桶,尝试接近站在四米高的平台上的摄影师。

第6段

In other studies, such as one by Alison Ames in 2008, polar bears showed deliberate and focussed manipulation. For example, Ames observed bears putting objects in piles and then knocking them over in what appeared to be a game. The study demonstrates that bears are capable of agile and thought-out behaviours. These examples suggest bears have greater creativity and problem-solving abilities than previously thought.

在其他研究中,如Alison Ames在2008年所做的研究,北极熊展现出目的性和有意的操控。例如,Ames观察到,北极熊将物品堆叠起来,然后再弄翻它们,似乎是在进行游戏。这项研究证明,北极熊能够做出经过思考的行为。这些例子表明,熊拥有比人们之前认为的更强的创造力和问题解决能力。

第7段

As for emotions, while the evidence is once again anecdotal, many bears have been seen to hit out at ice and snow – seemingly out of frustration – when they have just missed out on a kill. Moreover, polar bears can form unusual relationships with other species, including playing with the dogs used to pull sleds in the Arctic. Remarkably, one hand-raised polar bear called Agee has formed a close relationship with her owner Mark Dumas to the point where they even swim together. This is even more astonishing since polar bears are known to actively hunt humans in the wild.

至于情感,虽然证据再一次只是传闻性质的,但当它们错过捕杀机会的时候,许多熊都被看到过出于沮丧而击打冰面或者雪地。此外,北极熊能够与其他物种形成非同寻常的关系,包括与在北极的雪橇犬玩耍。出乎意料的是,一头由人类养大的、被叫做Agee的北极熊与其主人Mark Dumas的关系是如此亲密,以至于他们可以一起游泳。这一点更让人震惊,因为北极熊会在荒野中袭击人类是出了名的。

第8段

If climate change were to lead to their extinction, this would mean not only the loss of potential breakthroughs in human medicine, but more importantly, the disappearance of an intelligent, majestic animal.

如果气候变化导致北极熊灭绝,这不仅意味着人类医疗可能性的突破彻底消失,而且更重要的是,我们将失去一种智慧、威严的动物。

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