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剑桥雅思6Test2阅读Passage1原文翻译 Advantages of public transport […]

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剑桥雅思6Test2阅读Passage1原文翻译 Advantages of public transport 公共交通的优点

剑桥雅思6第二套题目阅读第一篇文章的主题为公共交通的优点。文章一共分为12段。虽然段数较多,但每段的主题都很明确。开头说明公共交通的各项优势,然后以各个城市的例子分别说明有轨电车、自行车以及公交体系统的好处,并反驳了一些反对公共交通的观点。下面是每一自然段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及具体题目的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思6 test 2 passage 1 公共交通的优点

剑桥雅思6Test2阅读Passage1答案解析 the advantages of public transport 公共交通的优势

剑桥雅思6 Test 2 Passage 1阅读原文翻译

第1自然段

A new study conducted for the World Bank by Murdoch University’s Institute for Science and Technology Policy (ISTP) has demonstrated that public transport is more efficient than cars. The study compared the proportion of wealth poured into transport by thirty-seven cities around the world. This included both the public and private costs of building, maintaining and using a transport system.

默多克大学科学技术政策研究所(ISTP)为世界银行进行的一项新研究表明,公共交通比汽车更高效。这项研究比较了全球37个城市投入运输的资金比例。其中包括建设,维护和使用运输系统的公共和私人成本。

第2自然段

The study found that the Western Australian city of Perth is a good example of a city with minimal public transport. As a result, 17% of its wealth went into transport costs. Some European and Asian cities, on the other hand, spent as little as 5%. Professor Peter Newman, ISTP Director, pointed out that these more efficient cities were able to put the difference into attracting industry and jobs or creating a better place to live.

研究发现,澳大利亚西部的珀斯市是公共交通稀缺城市的一个很好例子。结果,其财文章来自老烤鸭雅思富的17%被用在交通运输的花费上。另一方面,一些欧洲和亚洲城市的花费则仅为5%。ISTP主任彼得·纽曼(Peter Newman)教授指出,这些效率更高的城市能够在吸引产业和就业机会,或创造更好的居住环境方面带来差异。

第3自然段

According to Professor Newman, the larger Australian city of Melbourne is a rather unusual city in this sort of comparison. He describes it as two cities: ‘A European city surrounded by a car-dependent one’. Melbourne’s large tram network has made car use in the inner city much lower, but the outer suburbs have the same car-based structure as most other Australian cities. The explosion in demand for accommodation in the inner suburbs of Melbourne suggests a recent change in many people’s preferences as to where they live.

根据纽曼教授的说法,在这种比较中,墨尔本这一澳大利亚较大的城市表现的很不寻常。他将其描述为两个城市:“一个被高度依赖汽车的城市所环绕的欧洲城市” 。墨尔本的大型有轨电车网络使内城区的汽车使用率大大降低,但外部郊区与大多数澳大利亚其他城市一样,以汽车交通为主。墨尔本郊区内部对住房需求的激增表明,最近许多人对居住地的偏好发生了变化。

第4自然段

Newman says this is a new, broader way of considering public transport issues. In the past, the case for public transport has been made on the basis of environmental and social justice considerations rather than economics. Newman, however, believes the study demonstrates that ‘the auto-dependent city model is inefficient and grossly inadequate in economic as well as environmental terms’.

纽曼说,这是一种新的,更广泛的考虑公共交通问题的方式。过去,公共交通的理由往往是基于环境和社会正义考虑,而不是出于经济考虑。然而,纽曼(Newman)认为,该研究表明“依赖汽车的城市模式在经济和环境方面效率低下,严重不足” 。

第5自然段

Bicycle use was not included in the study but Newman noted that the two most ‘bicycle friendly’ cities considered – Amsterdam and Copenhagen – were very efficient, even though their public transport systems were ‘reasonable but not special’.

该研究不包括自行车的使用,但纽曼指出,被认为是“对自行车最为友好”的两个城市-阿姆斯特丹和哥本哈根-效率很高,尽管它们的公共交通系统“合理但不特殊” 。

第6自然段

It is common for supporters of road networks to reject the models of cities with good public transport by arguing that such systems would not work in their particular city. One objection is climate. Some people say their city could not make more use of public transport because it is either too hot or too cold. Newman rejects this, pointing out that public transport has been successful in both Toronto and Singapore and, in fact, he has checked the use of cars against climate and found ‘zero correlation’.

道路网络的支持者通常会争辩说这样的系统在特定城市中不起作用,从而拒绝具有良好公共交通的城市模式。一种反对意见是气候。有人说他们的城市太热或太冷,无法充分利用公共交通。纽曼对此表示反对,他指出,多伦多和新加坡的公共交通都取得了成功,事实上,他已经检验了汽车使用与气候之间的关系,但发现相关性为零。

第7自然段

When it comes to other physical features, road lobbies are on stronger ground. For example, Newman accepts it would be hard for a city as hilly as Auckland to develop a really good rail network. However, he points out that both Hong Kong and Zürich have managed to make a success of their rail systems, heavy and light respectively, though there are few cities in the world as hilly.

当涉及其他地理特征时,道路游说集团的理由会更加充分一些。例如,纽曼(Newman)承认,像奥克兰这样的丘陵城市很难发展一个真正良好的铁路网络。但是,他指出,尽管世界上很少有丘陵城市,但香港和苏黎世都实现了重型和轻型铁路系统的成功。

第8自然段/段落A

In fact, Newman believes the main reason for adopting one sort of transport over another is politics: ‘The more democratic the process, the more public transport is favored.’ He considers Portland, Oregon, a perfect example of this. Some years ago, federal money was granted to build a new road. However, local pressure groups forced a referendum over whether to spend the money on light rail instead. The rail proposal won and the railway worked spectacularly well. In the years that have followed, more and more rail systems have been put in, dramatically changing the nature of the city. Newman notes that Portland has about the same population as Perth and had a similar population density at the time.

事实上,纽曼认为,采用一种交通方式而不采用另一种的主要原因是政治:“选择的过程越民主,公共交通方式就越受亲赖。“他认为,波特兰,俄勒冈州,都是这方面的很好例子。几年前,联邦拨款用于修建一条新道路。但是,当地的压力团体迫使人们就是否将钱花在轻轨上进行了全民公决。铁路提案获胜,并且运行异常出色。在随后的几年中,越来越多的铁路系统被投入使用,从而极大地改变了城市的性质。纽曼指出,当时波特兰与珀斯人口大致相同,人口密度相似。

第9自然段/段落B

In the UK, travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries, with people avoiding situations that required them to spend more than half an hour travelling to work. Trains and cars initially allowed people to live at greater distances without taking longer to reach their destination. However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher.

在英国,上班时间至少已经稳定了六个世纪。人们会回避需要他们花半个多小时上班的情况。最初,火车和汽车使人们能够住得更远,而无需花费更长的时间到达目的地。但是,公共基础设施无法跟上城市扩张的步伐,导致大规模的交通拥堵问题。现在通勤时间大大增加。

第10自然段/段落C

There is a widespread belief that increasing wealth encourages people to live farther out where cars are the only viable transport. The example of European cities refutes that. They are often wealthier than their American counterparts but have not generated the same level of car use. In Stockholm, car use has actually fallen in recent years as the city has become larger and wealthier. A new study makes this point even more starkly. Developing cities in Asia, such as Jakarta and Bangkok, make more use of the car than wealthy Asian cities such as Tokyo and Singapore. In cities that developed later, the World Bank and Asian Development Bank discouraged the building of public transport and people have been forced to rely on cars -creating the massive traffic jams that characterize those cities.

人们普遍认为,财富的增长会鼓励人们住的更远,造成汽车是唯一可用的交通工具。欧洲城市的例子反驳了这一点。他们通常比美国城市更加富裕,但汽车使用水平却不高。在斯德哥尔摩,随着城市越来越大,越来越富裕,近年来汽车的使用量实际上有所下降。一项新的研究使这一点更加明显。与亚洲富裕的城市(如东京和新加坡)相比,亚洲的发展中城市(如雅加达和曼谷)对汽车的使用更多。在后来发展的城市中,世界银行和亚洲开发银行不鼓励建设公共交通。人们被迫依赖汽车,造成了这些城市的交通拥堵。

第11自然段/段落D

Newman believes one of the best studies on how cities built for cars might be converted to rail use is The Urban Village report, which used Melbourne as an example. It found that pushing everyone into the city centre was not the best approach. Instead, the proposal advocated the creation of urban villages at hundreds of sites, mostly around railway stations.

纽曼认为,关于以汽车为主城市如何转换为以铁路为主的最佳研究之一是《城市乡村》报告。该报告以墨尔本为例。研究发现,让每个人都进入市中心并不是最好的办法。相反,该提案主张在数百个地点(主要是火车站附近)建立城市村庄。

第12自然段/段落E

It was once assumed that improvements in telecommunications would lead to more dispersal in the population as people were no longer forced into cities. However, the ISTP team’s research demonstrates that the population and job density of cities rose or remained constant in the 1980s after decades of decline. The explanation for this seems to be that it is valuable to place people working in related fields together. ‘The new world will largely depend on human creativity, and creativity flourishes where people come together face-to-face.’

人们曾经认为,电信的发展将导致人口分散,因为人们不再被迫进入城市。但是,ISTP团队的研究表明,在经历了数十年的下降之后,20世纪80年代城市的人口和工作密度有所上升或保持不变。对此的解释似乎是,将在相关领域工作的人们聚集在一起很有价值。“新世界将在很大程度上取决于人类的创造力,而创造力在人们面对面聚集的地方蓬勃发展”。

剑桥雅思6Test2阅读Passage2原文翻译 Greying Population Stays in the Pink 老年人依旧健康

剑桥雅思6Test2阅读Passage3原文翻译 Numeration 计数的历史

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