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剑桥雅思6Test4阅读Passage3原文翻译 persistent bullying 校园欺凌/霸凌 剑桥 […]

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剑桥雅思6Test4阅读Passage3原文翻译 persistent bullying 校园欺凌/霸凌

剑桥雅思6阅读第四套题目第三篇文章的主题为校园欺凌(霸凌)现象。文章氛围7段,分别讲述了目前英国学校内存在的霸凌现象,霸凌行为对孩子的影响,学校对该现象的反应,防止霸凌现象的各种方法,以及对未来的预测。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思6 test 4 passage 3 学校欺凌现象

剑桥雅思6Test4阅读Passage3答案解析 persistent bullying 校园欺凌

剑桥雅思6 Test 4 Passage 3阅读原文翻译

前言

Persistent bullying is one of the worst experiences a child can face. How can it be prevented? Peter Smith, Professor of Psychology at the University of Sheffield, directed the Sheffield Anti-Bullying Intervention Project, funded by the Department for Education. Here he reports on his findings.

持续的欺凌是孩子可能面对的最糟糕的经历之一。如何预防?谢菲尔德大学心理学教授,彼得·史密斯,开展了一项由教育部资助的谢菲尔德反欺凌干预项目。以下是他的发现。

A部分

Bullying can take a variety of forms, from the verbal – being taunted or called hurtful names – to the physical – being kicked or shoved – as well as indirect forms, such as being excluded from social groups. A survey I conducted with Irene Whitney found that in British primary schools up to a quarter of pupils reported experience of bullying, which in about one in ten cases was persistent. There was less bullying in secondary schools, with about one in twenty-five suffering persistent bullying, but these cases may be particularly recalcitrant.

欺凌可采取多种形式,从口头上(被嘲笑或冠以侮辱性的名字)到身体上(被踢或推),还有各种各样的间接形式,如被排文章来自老烤鸭雅思除在社会群体之外。我与艾琳·惠特尼(Irene Whitney)进行的一项调查发现,在英国小学,有四分之一的学生报告遭受欺凌的经历,其中十分之一的案例是持续了很久。中学中的欺凌现象较少,约有二十五分之一的学生遭受持续性欺凌,但这些案例可能尤其令人难以接受。

B部分

Bullying is clearly unpleasant, and can make the child experiencing it feel unworthy and depressed. In extreme cases it can even lead to suicide, though this is thankfully rare. Victimised pupils are more likely to experience difficulties with interpersonal relationships as adults, while children who persistently bully are more likely to grow up to be physically violent, and convicted of anti-social offences.

欺凌显然是令人不快的,并且会使经历它的孩子感到格格不入和沮丧。极端情况下,它甚至可能导致自杀。尽管幸运的是这种情况很少见。受害的学长大之后更容易遭遇人际关系困难,而持续被欺负的孩子长大后则更有可能变得十分暴力,并被判犯有反社会罪。

C部分

Until recently, not much was known about the topic, and little help was available to teachers to deal with bullying. Perhaps as a consequence, schools would often deny the problem. ‘There is no bullying at this school’ has been a common refrain, almost certainly untrue. Fortunately more schools are now saying: ‘There is not much bullying here, but when it occurs we have a clear policy for dealing with it.’

直到最近,人们对这个话题都知之甚少,而且教师在应对欺凌方面几乎得不到帮助。或许正是因为如此,学校经常会否认这个问题的存在。“这所学校没有欺凌行为”是一种普遍的说法。但这几乎可以肯定是假的。幸运的是,现在有更多的学校在说:“这里没有太多欺凌行为,但是一旦发生,我们就有明确的政策予以处理

D部分

Three factors are involved in this change. First is an awareness of the severity of the problem. Second, a number of resources to help tackle bullying have become available in Britain. For example, the Scottish Council for Research in Education produced a package of materials, Action Against Bullying, circulated to all schools in England and Wales as well as in Scotland in summer 1992, with a second pack, Supporting Schools Against Bullying, produced the following year. In Ireland, Guidelines on Countering Bullying Behaviour in Post-Primary Schools was published in 1993. Third, there is evidence that these materials work, and that schools can achieve something. This comes from carefully conducted ‘before and after’ evaluations of interventions in schools, monitored by a research team. In Norway, after an intervention campaign was introduced nationally, an evaluation of forty-two schools suggested that, over a two-year period, bullying was halved. The Sheffield investigation, which involved sixteen primary schools and seven secondary schools, found that most schools succeeded in reducing bullying.

这种变化涉及到三个因素。第一是意识到问题的严重性。第二是英国已经有许多资源可以帮助解决欺凌行为。例如,苏格兰教育研究理事会制作了一揽子的材料-《反欺凌行动》,并于1992年夏季分发给英格兰和威尔士以及苏格兰的所有学校,第二项资料-《支持反欺凌学校》在随后一年发行。1993年,爱尔兰发布了《打击小学后欺凌行为的指南》。第三,有证据表明这些材料行之有效,并且学校可以实现某种改变。这来自于在研究团队监督下对学校干预措施进行前后的评估。在挪威全国范围内开展了干预运动之后,对四十二所学校的评估表明,在两年的时间内,欺凌现象减半了。谢菲尔德的调查涉及16所小学,7所中学,发现大部分学校都成功地减少了欺凌现象。

E部分

第1段

Evidence suggests that a key step is to develop a policy on bullying, saying clearly what is meant by bullying, and giving explicit guidelines on what will be done if it occurs, what records will be kept, who will be informed, what sanctions will be employed. The policy should be developed through consultation, over a period of time – not just imposed from the head teacher’s office! Pupils, parents and staff should feel they have been involved in the policy, which needs to be disseminated and implemented effectively.

证据表明,关键步骤是制定有关欺凌的政策,清晰说出欺凌的含义,并给出明确的指导方针,说明发生欺凌行为时将如何处理,保留哪些记录,将通知谁,将采取何种制裁措施。该政策应在一段时间内通过协商制定,而不仅仅是由校方单独施加!学生,父母和工作人员应感到自己已经参与到政策之中,需要对其进行有效的传播和实施。

第2段

Other actions can be taken to back up the policy. There are ways of dealing with the topic through the curriculum, using video, drama and literature. These are useful for raising awareness, and can best be tied in to early phases of development, while the school is starting to discuss the issue of bullying. They are also useful in renewing the policy for new pupils, or revising it in the light of experience. But curriculum work alone may only have short-term effects; it should be an addition to policy work, not a substitute.

可以采取其他措施来支持该政策。可以通过视频,戏剧和文学等方式通过课程处理这一问题。这些在学校开始讨论欺凌问题时对于提高认识很有用,并且最好与事态发展的早期阶段联系在一起。它们对于更新新生政策或根据经验进行修订也很有用。但是仅仅课程自身可能只会产生短期效果。它应该是政策工作的补充,而不是替代品。

第3段

There are also ways of working with individual pupils, or in small groups. Assertiveness training for pupils who are liable to be victims is worthwhile, and certain approaches to group bullying such as ‘no blame’, can be useful in changing the behaviour of bullying pupils without confronting them directly, although other sanctions may be needed for those who continue with persistent bullying.

也可以与个别学生或者小组一起努力。对容易成为受害者的学生进行自信训练十分重要,并且诸如“不责怪”之类的方法对于在不直接对抗的情况下改变欺凌者的行为十分有用,尽管对于那些继续进行欺凌行为的人应该采取相应制裁。

第4段

Work in the playground is important, too. One helpful step is to train lunchtime supervisors to distinguish bullying from playful fighting and help them break up conflicts. Another possibility is to improve the playground environment, so that pupils are less likely to be led into bullying from boredom or frustration.

操场上的工作也很重要。一项有用的措施是培训午餐时间管理员,以区分欺凌和玩耍性质的打闹,并帮助他们解决冲突。另一种可行性措施是改善操场的环境,以使学生不太可能因无聊或沮丧而欺负他人。

F部分

With these developments, schools can expect that at least the most serious kinds of bullying can largely be prevented. The more effort put in and the wider the whole school involvement, the more substantial the results are likely to be. The reduction in bullying – and the consequent improvement in pupil happiness – is surely a worthwhile objective.

随着这些发展,学校至少可以期望在很大程度上防止最严重的欺凌行为。投入的精力越多,整个学校的参与范围越广,结果可能会越有意义。欺凌行为的减少以及随之而来的学生幸福感的提高无疑是一个值得追求的目标。

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